Wednesday, July 31, 2019

McCrae & Costa’s Five-Factor Model Essay

McCrae and Costa’s Five-Factor model of personality is said to be predictive in certain behaviours such as honesty, job performance and procrastination. This Five-Factor model applies to organisational testing because personality is a crucial part in understanding the interests and abilities of an applicant within a business. There have been several criticisms of the Big Five and how accurately it can describe a person’s future performance. These criticisms will be discussed in length in this essay. The essay will also consider the usefulness of the Big Five within psychological assessments. Personality can be defined as â€Å"the dynamic organisation of systems that determine the individual’s characteristic patterns of behaviour, thought, and feeling† (Sibaya & Nicholas, Personality, 2008). Simply put one can describe personality as the aspects of a person which make them unique (Sibaya & Malcolm, 2003). Personality attributes have successfully been studied over centauries and investigators have concluded that the personality domain can be best described by five â€Å"super ordinate constructs† (Digman, 1990). A personality trait is â€Å"a durable disposition to behave in a particular way† and the five-factor model has become the dominant idea of a personality structure (Weiten, 2007). The five-factor model of personality came about as a result of Hans Eysenck’s two dimensions of personality. Eysenck’s theory comprised of neuroticism-stability and extraversion-introversion and he later added the third dimension known as psychoticism (Sibaya & Malcolm, 2003). Eysenck’s theory also concluded that personality traits could largely be determined by genetics (Sibaya & Malcolm, 2003). Eysenck’s theory of personality dimensions was a â€Å"precursor of the five-factor model† developed by Costa and McCrae (Sibaya & Malcolm, 2003). The five-factor model can be seen as the most recent approach to personality and personality traits. Costa and McCrae argue that personality traits derive from five higher order traits. These traits are now known as the â€Å"Big-Five† (Weiten, 2007). Similar to Eysenck’s view on personality traits Costa and McCrae concluded that genetics play a substantial role in personality (Digman, 1990). An example of genetics playing a role in the development in personality traits can be seen in the study of twins. Jim Lewis and Jim Springer were identical twins separated at birth in 1940 (Sibaya & Malcolm, 2003). These twins were later reunited and research showed that they had similar personality traits. The twins both drove the same model car; they both smoked heavily and liked the same brand of cigarettes (Sibaya & Malcolm, 2003). A further impact of the five-factor model is that it has shown in studies that this personality study applies across cultures and is widely identifiable in different cultures around the world (Weiten, 2007). The five-factor model states that there are five core personality traits: openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness and neuroticism. These form a mnemonic, OCEAN, which is often used for remembering the personality traits (Sibaya & Malcolm, 2003). Openness applies to the openness one would have to an experience. Openness is often associated with traits such as curiosity, imagination and flexibility (Weiten, 2007). McCrae states that openness can determine one’s political attitudes or ideologies (Weiten, 2007). Conscientiousness relates to traits involving well disciplined and well organised people and is associated with people being diligent within the workplace (Weiten, 2007). Extraversion relates to people who can be categorised as outgoing or sociable people (Weiten, 2007). Agreeableness relates to one’s ability to be sympathetic, trusting and modest (Weiten, 2007). Agreeable personality traits have been known to be associated with a constructive approach to dealing with conflict but agreeable people have also been known to be aggressive (Weiten, 2007). Neuroticism relates to people who are anxious or hostile (Weiten, 2007). People who score high in this personality trait have been known to over re-act to stressful situations (Weiten, 2007). Organisational psychology â€Å"focuses on role related behaviour, group pressure, commitment to organisations and patterns of communication† (Sibaya & Malcolm, 2003). In order for an organisational psychologist to determine this behaviour certain organisational testing or psychological assessments need to take place. A psychological assessment is a â€Å"standardised measure of a sample of a erson’s behaviour† (Weiten, 2007). Psychological assessment is one of the oldest and most focussed areas of industrial-organisational psychology (Weiten, 2007). Psychological assessment focuses on an individual’s difference in behaviour and their individual job performance and then develops ways in which they can measure or predict such performances. Testing enables psychologists to select people for jobs, assess one’s potential and develop people. Testing can often lead to labelling of people and selection for jobs, promotions or training has often been made in accordance to these labels. The importance of psychological assessments within the workplace is that they enable the perspective employer to have predictions about the applicant’s future performance and how that applicant may behave in the future. An example of how psychological assessments are beneficial and important can be seen in the use of a personality test. A personality test â€Å"measure various aspects of personality, including motives, interests and attitudes† (Weiten, 2007). Personality tests can be helpful because they assist in personnel selection within business and industry (Weiten, 2007). A sub-division of personality tests is ‘interest inventories’ which determine the interest of an individual in relation to the interests needed to do the job. An example of ‘interest inventories’ can be seen in the need for a sales person to have a personality type that is an extrovert. The example of the sales person can also explain the importance of psychological assessments within the work environment because without this form of testing perspective employers would be unable to employ people that are specifically suited to the position on offer, e. . an extrovert. The use of psychological assessment in business begins when the candidate is still in the selection process. The applicant for a perspective job will first consider the job analysis. A job analysis is the process of obtaining information about a job by determining what duties, tasks or activities it entails in order to perform the job successfully (Sibaya & Malcolm, 2003). Following a job analy sis the applicant would then submit an application and begin the selection process. A selection process can be described as the process of identifying who will be hired from the pool of applicants (Sibaya & Malcolm, 2003). The applicant will then undergo psychological assessment which involves a prediction of the applicant’s knowledge, abilities, attitudes and personality traits. The way in which these tests help with the selection process are that they are the best predictors of performance and behaviour on the job (Sibaya & Malcolm, 2003). Now that the selection process has been explained one can similarly link the development and promotion process to psychological assessment. With development or promotion the worker will have to undergo psychological testing to ensure that their abilities and interests fit with the promotion available. The five-factor model applies within the workplace because it enables employers to evaluate employee’s personalities and make use their personality traits to the best of their abilities. Research has indicated that the Big Five traits are able to predict specific behaviour (Weiten, 2007). The Big Five’s ability to predict this behaviour can be seen as beneficial in the workplace. An example of how the Big Five can benefit an industry can be seen in the personality trait ‘conscientiousness’ because it has been said that conscientiousness correlates with honesty, higher job performance and a lower alcohol consumption (Weiten, 2007). This being said one can understand that the Big Five traits allow a perspective employer the ability to employ conscientious workers. Many of the Big Five traits are related to career success (Weiten, 2007). The five-factor model can be used in the selection, development and promotion of employees because it allows the employer to predict what qualities the applicant has. The example used previously about the sales rep needing to be an extrovert is a perfect example of how the Big Five apply to selection, development and promotion. The five-factor model would allow the employer of such sales rep to be able to select candidates that fit the personality type that is required for the job at hand. Similar to this the employer could use the five-factor traits to determine whether an existing employee fits the personality required in a job opening and therefore the five-factor model applies to promotions within business as well. A further benefit to the Big Five is that an employer can determine an employee’s weak traits and develop them further thus improving the workforce. The use of the Big Five within occupational testing has been criticised by many psychologists and researchers as they feel nit does not adequately determine one’s ability to perform a task. A common criticism is that there is a fundamental need for more than five traits (Weiten, 2007). An example of this can be seen in recent studies that state that honesty-humility should be a sixth trait. Another criticism is that studies have shown that the five-factor model can discriminate against people. In the case of South Africa this criticism of the five-factor model only improved the outcome of the test because the discrimination led to changes in legislation which protect the rights of people and state that only valid testing may be done (Sibaya & Malcolm, 2003). The legislation protecting people’s rights within organisational tests has encouraged the use of these tests in the selection of new employees. Studies have also shown that the Big Five are not necessarily a reflection of one’s personality but rather a reflection of their â€Å"test-taking skills† (Ones, Reiss, & Viswesvaran, 1996). This criticism states that the results of the five-factor traits test are a reflection of one’s â€Å"cognitive ability and years of education† (Ones, Reiss, & Viswesvaran, 1996). This criticism is not necessarily a negative aspect as it only ensures better use of the Big Five within organisational testing because education is an important aspect to one’s personality. There are two main criticisms of the five-factor model. These are the â€Å"frame of reference effect† and â€Å"socially desirable responding† (Hanges, Dickson, & Smith, 2001). Critics argue that the five-factor model is not useful because it is too broad to be applied to psychological assessment (Schmit & Ryan, 1993). The first criticism is the frame of reference effect which states that the image the average job applicant would like to convey will have an effect on the psychological assessment (Hanges, Dickson, & Smith, 2001). The frame of reference effect can be explained better if one considers that a job applicant will be guided by their self-presentation (Schmit & Ryan, 1993). An employee will stand to gain or lose from the results of the psychological assessment and will therefore may alter their response to be in line with what would be considered the correct response (Hanges, Dickson, & Smith, 2001). This ‘altered response’ by the job applicant can be seen as a â€Å"ideal-employee† frame of reference where as the response given by a volunteer would be seen as a â€Å"stranger-description† frame of mind (Schmit & Ryan, 1993). The second criticism of the five-factor model is the socially desirable response. The â€Å"socially desirable response† can be divided into two sub-groups. Firstly there is â€Å"self-deception† which is the â€Å"unconscious tendency to see oneself in a favourable light† (Schmit & Ryan, 1993). Secondly, there is the theory of â€Å"impression management† where a person is consciously aware that they are putting up a false front in order to create a better impression (Schmit & Ryan, 1993). The concept of socially desirable responses has undergone three studies which examined the effect of the socially desirable response. The result of these three studies found that in a test of â€Å"fake good vs. honest responses† the personality reliabilities were higher in the fake good (Hanges, Dickson, & Smith, 2001). A further study was done on socially desirability consisting of three sample groups. The sample groups were the job applicant, the job incumbent and the student (Hanges, Dickson, & Smith, 2001). The results of this study much like the results of other studies showed that the job applicant showed more socially desirable responses than the job incumbent (Hanges, Dickson, & Smith, 2001). When defining personality some may argue with Freud’s opinion that personality is largely hidden and unknown. This definition of personality would parallel the argument that the five-factor model is a poor predictor of job success as well as suggesting that it is unethical to use the five-factor model within employment procedures (Hogan, Hogan, & Roberts, 1996). This argument could stem from criticisms such as the effect of socially desirable responses, the frame of reference effect and the thought that the five-factor model is limited by only considering five traits. Although these criticisms all have a valid argument one cannot help but believe the evidence that a well-constructed personality assessment is a valid predictor of job performance and it enhances fairness in the employment process (Hogan, Hogan, & Roberts, 1996).

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Miller introduce them into the book Essay

This shows that the girls want some recognition and gain authority by accusing innocent people of witchcraft. The people of Salem’s biggest fear was the defiance of God and so when Abigail and her assemblage spoke out against witchcraft everybody heeded their words and gave them the attention that they wanted. By pretending to be doing God’s work the girls become more important than before and use their power to make people believe what they want. This is why they are believed and never themselves impugned. One of the most noticeable themes of the book is heroism. Throughout the book there are many examples of this theme. The two most obvious events in the book which display heroism, if not somewhat controversially, are the deaths of Giles Cory and John Proctor. Cory’s death was heroic but it is possible to see the hanging of Proctor from a different perspective. It could be said that it was not a hero’s action to die but that of a guilty and cowardly man. In the book Miller, as well as Proctor, openly tells us of the characters mistakes. The reason Proctor chooses to be hung is because he could not bear to have his reputation tarnished. It could also be said though that he just could not bear the embarrassment of pleading innocence in order to save his life. John Proctor can be perceived as either a hero or a coward. I think that Proctor was a hero in this book. The way the book talks of him leads me to think of him as a well respected and highly thought of individual. I think that his actions were extremely brave and heroic. It must take a huge amount of bravery to go to your death even though you can get out of it. Despite there being little symbolism in the play it is a definite symbolic representation of the McCarthy anti-communist trials of the 1950s. I have explained previously about these trials and how they led Arthur Miller writing the book so from this is it obvious that Miller had these trials in mind whilst writing The Crucible. Many people have said though that these two events are completely different in that there were (as far as we know) no actual witches in Salem yet there were definitely communists in 1950 America. In the book I noticed that Miller seemed to focus more on the unwillingness of the judges to believe that the accused townspeople were innocent and preferred to hang as many people as possible in order to improve their status and rank within the court. I think this because when Danforth’s judgement is questioned he informs the court of how many death warrants he has signed, this to me shows that Danforth thinks that the more people you have hung the more respected you become. It is made obvious to us that Danforth is an important character because when he enters everyone in the room goes silent. This could suggest that you are more important if you have signed a lot of death warrants. This use of silence is another dramatic device used by Miller to emphasise an entrance and to make the audience focus on the entering character. I personally don’t know how the judges didn’t see through the girls because when I watched the video I noticed a lot of things which prove the girls are lying. For example, in Act 3, Abigail claims that ‘a cold wind blows’ and blames Mary Warren for sending out her spirit. During this performance, John Proctor claims that Abigail is a whore and that he has committed adultery with her. Abigail immediately stops acting and desperately informs Danforth that she is not a whore or a lecher. This could have been a major downfall for Abigail if someone had noticed this. I am particularly surprised that Proctor did not. If he had the trials could have ended there and then and would have prevented the deaths of many innocent people. In addition to themes Miller also introduces motifs. A motif is a recurring design, feature or melody. Accusation, Legal Proceedings and Confessions are major motifs of The Crucible. These appear regularly throughout the book and are the centre of action in the play. ‘This created a series of indictments even before Hale arrived’ (Sparknotes. com) and a reason for these people to turn on one another (revenge). The only way that the ‘witches’ could be found was through the accusations and confessions. The trials only continue as a result of accusations. John Proctor attempts to discontinue the courts proceedings by confessing to adultery in a desperate bid to expose Abigail yet it all goes horribly wrong and Proctor himself is accused of witchcraft! Proctor’s final courageous decision to die rather than confess to a crime he did not commit makes the judges rethink the whole case and decide to stop the trials before any one else died. Michael Day 10GO Show preview only The above preview is unformatted text This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Arthur Miller section.

Monday, July 29, 2019

Air Pollution and Global Warming on Aboriginals - Free Samples

Climate change is one of the issues germinated through the diabolical policy problem around the world. Rapid growth of the industries and the capital boom in the world market has leading to deterioration in the air pollution, which ultimately causing global warming (Knibbs and Sly 2014). One of the most threatened groups of indigenous population lives in Australia who is seemed to be suffering from the adverse effect of the climate change (Scarano and Ceotto 2015). Under this stringent condition of the aboriginals around the world, this report is aimed to consider the effect of the air pollution and the global warming on the indigenous population of the Australian population. According to the intergovernmental Panel on Climate change’s Third Assessment Report (TAR) it has been found that the Australian aboriginals are one of the two most threatened indigenous groups in the world that has been suffering heavily due to the adverse effect of the climate change (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2015). Now, the irony is that, there have been plenty of researches on the environment and development issues in Australia during last thirteen years; however most of them are concerned about the climate change laws of Australia other than the northern territories and fragmented in nature. Previous researches have failed to provide any long term engagement program between the community and government, which can assess the climate change and global warming effect on the Australian aboriginals (Race et al. 2016). Thus, this research is aimed to assess the effect of air pollution and global warming on the aboriginal of Australia through comparative analysi s of population living in northern region of the country with the non indigenous population of Australia. Over the time various foreign communities has came to the Australia and captured the land of the aboriginal people during the seventeenth century (Gilbert 2016). Since then, indigenous people have shifted to the northern territory of Australian and non indigenous population has exploited the country’s natural resource to a great extent leading to air pollution and global warming. According to Flora (2018), there has been various researches regarding the challenges and issues faced by the non indigenous population due to air pollution and global warming, however very few has addressed the case of indigenous population. There are more than 100,000 Australian indigenous people who presently live in remote areas of the country, whose majority section can be found in the Northern territory of the Australia and according to the TAR report their health condition and resource availability is getting deteriorated day by day (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2015). Under this s cenario, this research is essential for assessing the magnitude of the effect of air pollution and global warming from the point of view of the Australian indigenous population, The potential threat to the existence of aboriginal peoples is at stake due to the institutional and legal barriers raised through the various governmental programs regarding the environment and development. Under the purview of the situation of the Australian indigenous populations, this research is aimed to discuss the effect of air pollution and global warming on the aboriginal population of Australia. Flora, C.B., 2018.  Rural communities: Legacy+ change. Routledge. Gilbert, J., 2016.  Indigenous Peoples' Land Rights under International Law. Brill. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2015.  Climate change 2014: mitigation of climate change  (Vol. 3). Cambridge University Press. Knibbs, L.D. and Sly, P.D., 2014. Indigenous health and environmental risk factors: an Australian problem with global analogues?.  Global health action,  7(1), p.23766. Race, D., Mathew, S., Campbell, M. and Hampton, K., 2016. Understanding climate adaptation investments for communities living in desert Australia: experiences of indigenous communities.  Climatic Change,  139(3-4), pp.461-475. Scarano, F.R. and Ceotto, P., 2015. Brazilian Atlantic forest: impact, vulnerability, and adaptation to climate change.  Biodiversity and Conservation,  24(9), pp.2319-2331 Green, D. and Minchin, L., 2014. Living on climate-changed country: Indigenous health, well-being and climate change in remote Australian communities.  EcoHealth,  11(2), pp.263-272. Hugo, G. and Wall, J., 2015. Climate change and environmental influences on australia’s population distribution.  Health of People, Places and Planet: Reflections based on Tony McMichael’s four decades of contribution to epidemiological understanding, p.177. Maru, Y.T., Race, D., Sparrow, A., Mathew, S. and Chewings, V., 2015. Adaptation as a trigger for transformation pathways in remote Indigenous communities. In  Innovation in the Rangelands, Australian Rangeland Society 18th Biennial Conference. Schwerdtle, P., Bowen, K. and McMichael, C., 2018. The health impacts of climate-related migration.  BMC medicine,  16(1), p.1. Spencer, B., Lawler, J., Lowe, C., Thompson, L., Hinckley, T., Kim, S.H., Bolton, S., Meschke, S., Olden, J.D. and Voss, J., 2017. Case studies in co-benefits approaches to climate change mitigation and adaptation.  Journal of environmental planning and management,  60(4), pp.647-667.

REPORT Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words - 1

REPORT - Essay Example This as a result leads to certain unforeseen incidents that have severe adverse effects on the stakeholders and the society. Ford is one of the best ethical companies that is known for its code of conduct and strict enforcements. It sets an example for all the business firms on how the ethical practices can be followed and what are its positive implications. This paper is focused on the ethical consumerism practices in the business market and how the companies can take steps to improve ethical sourcing of products and services. The concept of ethical sourcing has recently become a topic of concern among the customers. Moreover it also determines the attractiveness of a company to its stakeholders. Ethical practices are overlooked by many large companies who are blinded by their short term goals, this as a result lead to long term adverse consequences. This paper discusses how a firm can responsibly adopt ethical practices to ensure sustainable business activities. It also highlights the ethical practices of Ford Motors, which is considered to be one of the most ethical companies in the world. The incident mentioned in the case study is a clear indication towards the long term adverse effects of avoiding ethical practices. The collapse of the Rana plaza building could have been avoided if the companies were more concerned about its maintenance (case study). The ethical practices of a firm include taking care of the sustainability of the industry, environment and the interest of the stakeholders. Most of the companies overlooked the necessity of ethical practices and sustainable marketing and is often perceived as an added cost to the company. However, they fail to realize that these ethical practices are the ones that allow the company to maintain a steady growth and help to avoid unforeseen circumstances. The collapse of the Rana Plaza building has affected a lot of firms that sourced garments from the supplier companies in that building. This incident had

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Nursing Shift Handover Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3500 words

Nursing Shift Handover - Research Paper Example The key feature not present in this approach is the individual care planning and the gathering of all the information about patients was written inward diaries using nurses notes (Kasseau). In post-modern nursing, shift handover includes communication between the change of shift, communication between care providers about patient needs, handoff, records and information tools to assist communication between care providers about the care provided for patients (Clinical handover). Shift handover procedures are essential when considering that nurses take breaks from tasks of which they have joint responsibility and that under these conditions communication fosters coordination of activities and accountability. Nursing provides continuous care services to patients and a shift handover is generally a time of; preparation by outgoing personnel; shift handover wherein incoming and outgoing nurses exchange information; and cross-checking of information by the incoming nurses as they take on the responsibility for tasks. The ideal outcome of shift handover is precise and reliable communication of task-relevant information across shifts to guarantee continuity of safe and efficient working environments.   Hospital in the UK, and a relevant literature review. Firstly, an example of a shift handover will be presented. Secondly, a literature review will outline communication theory in regards to nursing handover, as well as review the most up-to-date studies into efficient shift handover in a nursing setting. Thirdly, the key principles involved in developing efficient shift handover will be listed.  Ã‚  

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Building a Strong Brand within the Fashion Industry Essay - 1

Building a Strong Brand within the Fashion Industry - Essay Example Brand management practices refers to the various actions, decisions and even omissions which are done by the fashion companies in order to create value and identity of the brand . A brand has values, identity and emotion attached with it just like a human being. Just as human actions make or mar the human personality, the actions which are taken by the company decide what kind of image the brand receives. Companies use both strategic as well as emotional techniques in order to manage their brand. For effective Brand management the brand of the company should have a unique personality which differentiates it from others. Zara gives a message of democratizing fashion which means that it has to provide customers with latest design and trends at the minimum price. Thus all the activities of Zara are geared in order to ensure that this brand personality of ‘latest fashion at affordable prices’ is maintained. In order to ensure low prices, the company has to pay immense attent ion to its supply chain which needs to be quick and effective. On the other hand Armani as a brand has a personality which is an extension of its founder. The personality of the founder has been shown as youthful by the company, so the strategy of Armani is to target youths make sense. Brand management is also about effective story telling through proper channels of communication. This story

Friday, July 26, 2019

Abortion Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Abortion - Essay Example ff, 2002), fetus lacks self-consciousness thus it does it is not even aware that it is alive thus it practically does not have the will or the desire to live (Singer, 2000). Since the fetus is supposedly unaware of its existence, the mother has the right to terminate the pregnancy. The argument here is that forcing a woman to bring a fetus to full term and then raise the child thereafter is contrary to the very idea of self-autonomy and freedom of choice (Warren, Mary Ann, 1973). Although the woman has rights over her body, the fetus also has the right to life. Arguably, the right to life starts at conception (Marquis, 1989). When the woman choose to have consented sex, she become responsible for putting the fetus into her womb. As it is, she now has the obligation to let the fetus use her body. The right to life of the fetus now comes in direct contrast to the rights of the woman not to let the fetus use her body. The question now is whose rights are more important, the rights of the mother over her body or the right of the fetus to use the body of the mother to live. This clash of rights may not be resolved easily and debates regarding the issue are bound to go on for several

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Dangers of social networking for employees Research Paper

Dangers of social networking for employees - Research Paper Example However, social networks also brought many challenges in the organizational world. The misuse of social networks by the employees is causing big headache to the organizational world. Employees are spending too much time in front of the social networks and failing to complete their routine works in time. They are providing vital company information to the competitors knowingly or unknowingly through social networks. Competitors are exploiting the possibilities of social networks to know the business secrets of organizations through employees. It is necessary for the organisations to regulate the activities of employees in social networks. The traps existing in the social networks are unaware to many of the employees. Employees should be encouraged or trained to use the social network in a judicious manner while working in an organization. This paper analyses the dangers raised by social networks to the employees. Dangers of social networking for employees (Tomexy, 2011) At the time of introduction of social networks such as twitter, Facebook, MySpace, YouTube, Skype etc, nobody thought that it may affect human life as it does now. Initially the purposes of social media were; spending leisure time, relaxation, enjoyment and instant communication etc. However, after few years from introduction, social media have changed everything. It is difficult to describe the influence of social media on current human life in few words. Virtually, all the segments of current human life are influenced by social media now. Irrespective of culture, race, gender, age or socioeconomic background, people from all parts of the world are interested in social media activities. However, teenagers and employees are more active in social media websites. Social media bring lot of opportunities to the business people and teenagers. At the same time, it brings lot of challenges also. Business is one segment in which social media brings lot of opportunities as well as challenges. Social netwo rking marketing spending has been increased a lot in the past. According to a report, it has increased from $884 million to $2.34 billion in between the period 2007-2009 (Dickey & Lewis, 2010, p.140). Currently, organizations are utilizing social media not only for the recruitment of employees, but also for marketing products and services as well. Social media brought lot of opportunities to the employee community. It is easy for them to share their thoughts and relieve their personal and professional stresses through social networks. However, there are plenty of dangers hiding in social media for an employee. Many of the social media savvy employees in the past suffered a lot from social media. If not used judiciously and carefully, social media can bring more harm than good to an employee. This paper analyse the dangers involved in social media as far as an employee is concerned. Discussion Unlike many other media or channels of communication, social media has the ability to furni sh two-way communication. It should be noted that television and newspaper like communication channels are incapable of helping people in interacting each other instantly. Instant two way communication is good as well as bad as a far as employee is concerned. Instant two way communication helps employees to get the feedback or vital information from the other end quickly and take decisions based on that. However, while performing two way communication, employees often forget about the value of time and they may forget other important matters as well. Most of the employees engage in casual talks with others along with the professional matters while they use social media for communication. Casual talks often end up in waste of

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Economics Government Regulation Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Economics Government Regulation - Research Paper Example Poor planning leads to loss of resources and in extreme levels to the collapse of the enterprise. Therefore, it is very crucial for organizations to make clear plans that would act as the blue print for the business (Baker & English, 2011; Singh, 2012). The price that a food processing company should charge for its commodities should range between the lowest price at which the company may not make profit at all, to the highest price that is likely to reduce demand of the products if charged. In such a case, a company should consider both the internal and the external factors in order to get the most appropriate price between these two extremes. Introduction of new products calls for adoption of a proper pricing strategy that would completely discourage competition from the new comers (other firms) and most importantly create the desired impact in the market (Kurtz, 2012). Penetration and skimming pricing strategies are some of the basic strategies that may be adopted to determine the right price of the commodity. Skimming pricing encompasses launching a product at a relatively high price and later on reducing it if necessary (Kurtz, 2012). This strategy spends a lot of money in product promotion, and is recommended mostly when the demand of the product is not predictable. The strategy is common especially if the company had spent large sums of money on research, when promotion is likely to expend a lot of money due to the competition, and when the commodity is very innovative in a way that the market is likely to mature gradually. Skimming strategy has numerous advantages such as ensuring that the elasticity of the products price is low as well as ensuring that minimal cross elasticity of demand exists in case there exist products that are close substitutes. This helps the product in making a vital inroad into the market

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Elusive Quest for Growth Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Elusive Quest for Growth - Essay Example Development that leads to growth has been impossible, in the way done. It’s really an illusion thinking that a rich country claiming to financial aid to undeveloped countries would lead real financial growth in the long run, starting from the short run. Economists and Marketing Sciences have been trying to defend the idea of real financial aid and support of the rich countries of the world, and we see in terms of statistics that this has not been achieved. On the contrary the way and perspective of this kind of aid, have led to even more poverty, and lack of true growth. A number of economists throughout last decade had tried to defend the idea, that investment in machines and technology, surplus labor, education and environment resources, have led to opposite results and do not promote revenues of countries. First of all there are other major factors affecting the possibility of growth, such as general climate changes all over the planet, local climate of course in each count ry, geographic position, and structure of natures as well as infrastructure and raw materials existing in each country along with all environment resources. ... ll over the planet, local climate of course in each country, geographic position, and structure of natures as well as infrastructure and raw materials existing in each country along with all environment resources. He also defends the aspect that nor even control of population can lead to any results due quick demographic changes and that this may not always be controlled. Despite the financial aid given to countries, one would clearly see, that it is not a true financial aid, but it’s based on interests of most wealthy people of the world to raise capitals on behalf of them, a disparity of income all over the world, with children starving in poor countries, social inequalities between men and women and of course between rich and poor. Poor countries may be supported in the short run, but in the long run, they are found in big debt, not being able to pay out the huge loans, and by not also being supported essentially for growth, the gap between rich and poor people all over the world is getting more and more big. The financial support is just on behalf of the rich countries to become wealthier, as some standards of the poor countries, such as environment, infrastructures, in terms of raw materials and resources, are not taken into account. Then poor countries are supported just partially and this leads only to a financial release and not to real financial growth. Doing investments in local level, and increasing employment in countries that suffer inflation, may solve the problem to an extent. Okay, employment is increased, people have jobs, thus more is invested in education, but in the end, just more wealth is added to rich ones, as they’ll invest the money from surplus labor and the difference in terms of inflation of their own currency and local currency, in

Nanotechnology Uses to Enhance Computer Performance Essay Example for Free

Nanotechnology Uses to Enhance Computer Performance Essay Although the core concepts of nanotechnology were introduced in the early 1950’s, nanotechnology was not properly introduced to the world until 1974. That was the year a Japanese scientist, named Tanigushi, coined the word â€Å"nanotechnology†. Nanotechnology refers to the constructing and engineering of systems at the atomic level. â€Å"Nanotechnology will be the major technology in development of every machine in coming years. † (Wifinotes, n. d. ) Nanotechnology will greatly improve the functionality and performance of computers. Body  In everyday terms, â€Å"Nanotechnology is based on manipulations of individual atoms and molecules to build complex atomic structures. † (Tarasov, 2009, pg. 1) Working at the atomic level is a very new technology. The size of a nanometer is one-billionth of a meter. For comparison purposes, â€Å"A very fine human hair is about 10,000 nanometers wide, which is the smallest dimension we can see with the naked eye. † (Cook, 2005) Before research could begin, researchers had to first invent a machine that could work with such small particles. Their goal was to manipulate atoms and molecules into a particular configuration – a configuration capable of performing functions similar to a microprocessor. The technology prior to nanotechnology started out rather primitive. It was a major advance in technology when vacuum tubes were invented. They came into existence about the same time Thomas Edison invented the light bulb. Vacuum tubes were first used in computers in 1946 until 1958. By then, vacuum tubes could not be made any smaller, so technology gave us transistors. Transistors were used in computers from 1959 to 1964. One transistor took the place of 40 vacuum tubes. When the limits of the transistor were reached, computer builders used integrated circuits from 1965 to 1970. In 1971, the microprocessor came into computer use. Faster and smaller than anything so far, the microprocessor led to the invention of personal computers. Now that the advancement of microprocessors has nearly reached its limits, it is now time for the next generation of processor, which some researchers say will be engineered on the nanometer scale. But, how will they manipulate particles on such a minute scale? Before manipulating atoms into the desired position, researchers had to see them first. Researchers had to invent a microscope that would allow them to see atoms. In 1981, IBM researchers invented the Scanning Probe Microscope (SPM). (University of Wisconsin, 2008) This microscope allowed researchers to â€Å"see† atoms. As it turns out, in 1989, researchers found they could actually manipulate atoms into the desired position with the SPM. †¦researchers have been able to manipulate and stabilize atomic-size structures in such a way that they can persistently maintain the qualities needed to be classified as viable, though still strictly experimental, computational devices. † (Goth, 2012) Atoms are constantly moving, so catching one to move around was very difficult. The atoms needed to be cooled down to near absolute zero, to -450 degrees Fahrenheit, the temperature where most atoms hardly move. The Scanning Probe Microscope (Nanooze, 2005) After cooling the atoms, researchers were able to use the SPM to move individual atoms to a specific location. One at a time, they moved the atoms into position to spell â€Å"IBM†. It took them nearly an entire day to do it. See image below: Atoms arranged to spell IBM (Nanooze, 2005) Since the first manipulation of atoms had been demonstrated, researchers have continued to move atoms into complicated configurations, as shown in the figure below. Depiction of a nanotechnology produced gear set (Wifinotes, n. d. ) After all the groundwork had been laid, computer researchers turned their attention to using nanotechnology in the computer world. Their first target was the microchip. Current microchip technology limits have nearly been reached and the researchers went to work shrinking the size of the processors . â€Å" etching [lithography] techniques can only take features so far – anything below 22nm is just not feasible. † (European Nanotechnology Gateway, n. d. ) Right now, the newest chipsets using lithographic etching are being produced with 65nm features. Intel has realized a 10-15% improvement in drive current, which means greater performance, through the use of nanotechnology. Meanwhile, at IBM, to aid the shrinking of the processors, â€Å"researchers have developed transistors from carbon nanotubes. †( European Nanotechnology Gateway, n. d. ) Carbon nanotubes show great improvements compared to conventional silicon transistors. â€Å"The carbon nanotubes are long, thin strands of carbon molecules. In the lab, they delivered more than double the amount of electrical current compared to the top-performing transistors currently on the market. †( European Nanotechnology Gateway, n. . ) â€Å"A single strand of carbon atoms (red)†¦contained in a multi-walled carbon nanotube. † (American Institute of Physics, 2003) Lithographic etching is being replaced with a new process called â€Å"block co-polymer lithography†, or BCP. Scientists have found a process to create nano-scale patterns that is expected to be used in the manufacture of microprocessors. Using the new process, silicon wafer features have been developed between five and 20 nanometers thick – much smaller than the current 65 nanometers. In the figure below, you can see an image of a nano-scale microprocessor created by the BCP process: (Nanotechnology, 2011) According to Nanotechnology – Future Technology: †¦with the use [of] nanotechnology, it could be possible to transform desktop computers into computers that are the size of a watch but with more operating capacity and they will also last longer than current computers†¦Computers with the capabilities of current workstations will be the size of a grain of sand and will be able to operate for decades with the equivalent of a single wristwatch battery. This technology advancement will make computers more abundant, cheaper to manufacture, faster, and smaller. (Nanotechnology – Future Technology, 2012) When a processors feature size is reduced, it uses less electricity and produces less heat, thereby becoming more efficient and economical to operate. Being more efficient and economical also means faster, more reliable overall performance of the computer. Conclusion Nanotechnology will provide the world with advancements in electronics along with many other fields, such as biology, chemistry and medicine. In the future, nanotechnology will play a major role in the discovery of new components, such as nano-sized microprocessors, and will enhance many other existing technologies. â€Å"Nanotechnology will be the major technology in [the]development of every machine in coming years. † (Wifinotes, n. d. ) Nanotechnology will greatly improve the functionality and performance of computers.

Monday, July 22, 2019

Energy and charisma Essay Example for Free

Energy and charisma Essay Throught the entire play Richard is without a doubt a character of energy and charisma, but in comparison to others is a very debatable question. That is why I am going to try and look at both sides of the arguement fairly to see if Richard is a character of strong energy and charisma compared to the others or if, he infact, is not. I think that the only person throught the play who see past Richards lies and deceit is his own mother (The Duchess) as in Act 2, scene 1-4 she talks about how unusually fast he grew as a child and how he was born with teeth. She goes on to talk about how he was mischevious (Parlous) and sharp tongued (Shrewd). There is also another character in Act 2, scene 4 who fears herself to be in danger from Richard duke of Gloucester. This character is Elizabeth. She realizes she is in great peril when her son (Grey) and her brother (Rivers) are both arrested. Elizabeth says: Come, come, my boy, we will to sanctuary.  Madam, farewell.  Elizabeth decides to flee, and go into hiding because she fears for her life from Richard. Elizabeth at this point I dont think knows exactly what Richards up too, but she does know Richard will come after her aswell. This is quite an unpredictable event as she does not wait around and fall into Richards evil plot. So i would say that she showed a knowledge and used initiative by pre-determining Richards plans for her, this shows that she is quite energetic. I would definetly say that she doesnt seem to be dull or predictable. A character that doesnt see what Richard has planned is Lord Hastings for in Act 3 scene 2 all the way to Act 3 scene 4 Hastings misses all the signs that almost blatantly show that Richard intends to kill him. This does not make him predictable or dull, just easily fooled. For example in Act 3 scene 2 Lord Stanley sends a messenger to Hastings telling him his dream was The boar razed off his helm in other words Lord Stanley was convinced that Hastings was in great danger of Richard, but Hastings calmy says:  To fly the boar before the boar pursues  Were to incense the boar to follow us  And make pusuit were he did not mean to chase. What Hastings is trying to says is that Stanley is just being paranoid and that it was just a simple dream, he says if they were to flee from Richard for fear of death and Richard didnt want to kill Hastings then it would cause him to find him and kill him and he may not have wanted to do such a thing in the first place. This is dramatic irony because what Hastings says is the complete opposite to Richards intentions for him, Hastings thinks if he would flee, Richard would kill him but infact Richard lures him and then kills him. Hastings is trying to think with some logic here and what he is saying does make sense, but from here on he becomes more and more ignorant to other signs he recieves, truly convinced that Richard means no harm to him. That was the first sign for Hastings, and because he is so predictable himself he seems to think that everyone else is too. For example he thinks he has Richard all figured out by saying:  Can lesser he hide his love or hate, than he,  For but his face straight shall you know his heart  He assumes that Richard cannot hide his true feelings and these are expressed, he doesnt belive he can almost be two people, because one Richard appears to be good, faithful and loyal whilst the real Richard is lying, cheating and decietful. If you were to compare both Hastings to Elizabeth you would see an etirely different contrast between them both. Elizabeth clearly sees herself in great danger and goes into hiding which is the opposite to what Hastings did, he was even lured by Richard into his own death. I personally belive Hastings wasnt as stupid as he seemed to be when it came to knowing Richard, I belive he was in denial that Richards intentions for him were death, I am sure Hastings wanted to belive that this wasnt true and that is why whenever a sign showed for him he dismissed it quickly without a second thought, so if this was true Hastings may be an energetic character, but in a completely opposite way. He trys to butter up Richard in possibly a faint attempt for Richard to reconsider killing Hastings, he does this by saying: I thank his grace, I know he loves me well  There are some characters in the play who can almost tell that Richard is lying and decietful, for example the two young princes. Richard trys to convince the boys that his uncles were arrested because they were evil but infact they deny what Richard says and they say they know that there good people. Other characters in this play dont really show much charisma, or at least not as much as Richard. This again doesnt mean they lack charismatic and energetic influences, i think its because Richard seems almost the most unlikely person who would ever betray people due to the fact he is a social outcast and is deformed a little. Im sure they fell for Richards false charm because of the fact he appears harmless and he can play both good and evil so well, I think most people would belive how he acted towards them. There is also another character who I myself think made Richard seem predictable and that was Lord Buckingham. For when Richard asks him to kill the two princes up in the tower he pushs Buckingham to his limit and Buckingham refuses to do it. I thought that Richard should have possibly seen this coming as everyone has there limits and Richard found Buckinghams limits. Another reason for Buckingham being an extra-ordinary character is because I feel he out-wits Richard due to the fact that I dont think Buckingham really wants to help Richard, I think he knew what Richard was up to and Buckingham thought it would be safer to help Richard or he would almost certainly get killed, and now that Richard has the throne Buckingham possibly feels theres no real threat from Richard anymore because he has the thone now. There are many characters in this play and personally all of them how there own unique energetic spirit, its not because they are dull and predictable its simply because Richard is a flatterer, and he was the most unlikely person to try and take the throne due to his deforment. The other characters were all to busy worrying about other people betraying them they hardly had time to notice Richards evil plots.  To summarise, I belive there are equal arguements to say Richard is more charismatic and energetic than the other characters. There are some who are predictable and others who I feel out-master Richards charisma. So all in all, there are some chracters who dull, some who match Richards charisma and others who top it.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

How does culture influence international business

How does culture influence international business How does culture influence international business As a result of the globalization, the increasingly close interaction between firms which are from different cultures has been booming. Therefore, culture, which is manifest in behavioral norms, hidden assumptions, and human nature, each occurring at a different level of depth, has profound influences on international business. (Kilmann, Sfixton, Serpa 1986) Under this circumstance, in order to negotiate and deal with foreign partners more efficiently, and to enter new markets successfully as well, we should explore the exotic cultures and in what manners those magical cultures will affect the way we trade Generally speaking, culture is consisted of language, religion, social institutions, political systems and philosophy, economic systems, education, and symbols. (Johnson, Turner 2010: 307) So, when talking about the influences of culture on international business, these aspects should be taken into account, especially the impacts from language, history, religion, and social institution, which can reflect the habits, attitudes, beliefs of the society. With the analysis of these three aspects, the great impacts of culture on international trade will be clear. To begin with, language is one of the most significant factors that have impacts on international business, since language is the crucial medium for business partners to communicate with each other and understand their ideas. During the frequent global trade and commerce, the exchange of language is necessary, which has great effect on international trades. There are some taboo words and idioms in every language, which are likely to cause problems. For instance, some specific numbers are treated differently in different areas. The number 3 enjoys both praise and abuse alike. In Monaco, people like this number very much because they believe it will bring them prosperity. The Hong Kong people like this number, too, because in Cantonese, 3 is homophonic with promotion. But the Europeans generally consider it ominous. 4 is commonly disliked by people in Japan, Hong Kong and China, because it means death. So, code-switching is very vital in international business, especially in terms of t he interaction with partners and customers and advertisement. Lets take Microsoft Word as an example. At first glance, Word is simply a software package rather than an advertisement. However, the languages available in the programme are part of Microsoft marketing discourse, and also make statements about how the brand wants to be perceived. As part of its localization strategy, Word offers a great variety of Englishes, from Australia to Zimbabwean. One such variety offered is an Irish-English language option and dictionary. Microsoft dose provide a comprehensive language option in Irish, but a dictionary of Irish-English, prepared with a genuine understanding of the everyday mixed-up sociolinguistic context of that variety, should include these and other examples. (Kelly-Holmes 2008: 185) Here Microsoft is a typical good model of code-mixing, which not only provide convenience for customers, but expand it consumer base as well as attain international reputation. Then, as a significant role in global trade, religious factor cant be ignored, especially for those states ruled by religious authority, since religion lays down a set of fundamental principles and values which govern the behaviour and life of its adherents. (Johnson, Turner 2010: 308) Religious beliefs can influence trading behavior in mainly two ways. First, sharing the same religious belief often implies sharing similar values. A common religion may therefore enhance trust between trading partners and reduce transaction costs, increasing the trade volume between traders of the same religion should be higher than trade between different religions. Second, each religion has its own ethical standpoint towards the activity of trading. (Helble 2007) The impacts of religion on can be indicated in individuals material life and their attitudes toward purchasing and using merchandise and services. Sometimes religious traditions even prohibit the use of certain goods and services altogether , like Islam forbids the eating of pork and Hindus do not consume beef. Therefore, when Macdonald entered Muslim countries, it has changed its menu to get used to their specific religious practices. The hamburgers (and all food items for that matter) must be Halal, and in fact, they do not call the burgers hamburgers as such, instead they call them beef burgers so as to make it clear that there is no ham in them. (The Travel Almanac n.d) So taboos and preferences have to be explored before entering a religious society and trade with partners who are religious believers. Thirdly, history is a mirror of a society, which can indicate the establishment and development about economic and political form of a country. Whereas in developing economics foreign brands have status value, when countries develop, people tend to focus more on their historical national preferences. For instance, in the early 1990s anything Western sold in Russia, but since 1996 international companies such Coca-Cola and Nestlà © have been localizing their messages in Russia. As Russians have become more nationalistic, producers have tried to make their products more relevant. (Mooij nd: 17) So historical characteristics should be considered during international business to make sure that your products and ways of negotiating are suitable to the countries of destination in terms of their habits, tastes, and values. Japanese businessmen may prefer keep on saying yes, yes. However, their yes doesnt mean their acceptance to the term is offered, but rather their understanding of what i s said. They keep on saying yes only for rites sake. Still worth mentioning there is that the Japanese have more trust in personal rapport than in business contracts. This presents a sharp contrast to the Americans. So when doing business with the Japanese, you should take time and pains to establish true personal rapport and friendships. Dont count too much on contracts; they are pieces of waste paper in the eyes of the Japanese once both sides are at odds. (Huang 2010: 2) From this example, it indicates that doing business with foreign countries has changed the traditional thinking patterns, and some successful companies have been adapted to particular coping styles according to different cultures. History is the best treasure, which explains the economic development of societies that have played a significant part in global trade, can help businessmen to learn the information of the habits and life styles of both partners and customers from destination countries. Finally, social institutions are defined as a complex of positions, roles, norms, and values lodged in particular types of social structures and organizing relatively stable patterns of human resources with respect to fundamental problems in sustaining viable societal structures within a given environment by Turner (1997). It is also considered that the very nature of social institutions that produce values or standards of good and bad can also encourage justifications of sanctioned behaviors.( Parboteeah, Hoegl, Cullen 2003) Lets take China as an example. China is a country with powerful social institutions, which affect Chinese business activities a lot. On the other hand, another important institution in China is the family and the mutual dependency of its members. Therefore, Chinese peoples behaviours and manners have influenced deeply by these aspects. In Chinese societies, such relationships are governed by what is termed guanxi, which is a bond between people, on the basis of which friends are expected to look after each others wellbeing. (Bargiela-Chiappini and Harris 1997: 42) The complexities of interpersonal relations bothered a large number of western businessmen, since most Chinese businessmen prefer to trade with friends or friends friends and relatives, who are thought to be more trustful due to the special guanxi between them. Therefore, as Lafayette De Mente states, a successful business relationship between Chinese companies begins with the establishment of a personal bond between the principal managers of the companies and is based particularly on the careful maintenance of these personal ties. (Bargiela-Chiappini and Harris 1997: 42) So, exploring the social institution of the destination countries is very useful for businessmen to trade in different societies efficiently. After the discussion of key determinants of culture, a famous study of cultural dimensions, which can provide a more clear view of the impacts of culture on international business, will be highlighted. Dimensions of cultural differences are very necessary for organizations especially those who operate internationally to understand and cope with such differences that can manifest themselves in terms of different standards, values and expectations in the various countries in which they operate. (Johnson, Scholes, Whittington 2008: 190) Here I have to mention one of the most effective studies of cultural dimensions, Hofstedes cultural dimensions, which are consisted of power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism and collectivism, masculinity-femininity, and short/long-term orientation. To begin with, power distance discusses dependence relationships within countries and societies. The smaller the power distance is, the more dependency of subordinates on supervisors will be. Bargiela-Chiappini and Harris (1997) found that from Hofstedes research it is indicates that in Chinese societies, such as Hong Kong and Singapore, people tend to demonstrate greater deference towards those in power than they do in Western societies. Malaysia is an example of a high power distance culture and a majority of the websites reflected this cultural aspect; for instance companies hierarchy information and authority figures were the main features in communication media such that pictures of important people in the company were displayed clearly so that they could be effectively addressed and appropriately shown respect. Similarly, the main feature of the web pages was a photograph and statement by the Chancellor to the students. (Ahmed, Mouratidis, Preston 2009) Thus, when designing a w ebsite for a high power distance culture, we needs to pay attention to a conspicuous organizational chart that clearly describes and highlight the level of hierarchy in order to make people know the fundamental structure and chain of charge of the company. Therefore, in the high power distance countries and societies the management should be apprehensible and hierarchical, while in the opposite phenomenon, power should be delegated to the lower levels and individuals should be rewarded according to their performance rather than their place or job title. Secondly, uncertainty avoidance will be analysed, which is the extent to which individuals within a society are prepared to tolerate uncertainty in their lives. (Hofstede 1980: 153) In those cultures where uncertainty avoidance is high, the planning and assignments should be conducted in a more accurate and formal way so that staff can understand and pursue the assignments strictly, which is similar to the high power distance cultures. Hofstede (1991) suggested that in uncertainty societies there are many formal laws and informal rules controlling the rights and duties of employees and employers, while in countries with very weak uncertainty avoidance there rather seems to be an emotional horror of formsl rules. People in such societies pride themselves that many problems can be solved without formal rules. However, in the low uncertainty avoidance cultures, decisions making and planning can be in a more informal way, that individuals can be motivated to provide suggestions and make innovation. As Reimann, Là ¼nemann, and Chase (2008) thought, the importance of uncertainty avoidance in conjunction with service quality can be found at the macro level of economies as well as at the micro level of consumer behavior. From a macroeconomic standpoint, as services become increasingly important to modern economies (Metters, Marucheck 2007), high uncertainty avoidance may hinder a service business actually being started and, thus, slow down the exploitation of new economic opportunities, especially in the service sector (Wennekers et al. 2003). On the level of consumer behavior, we agree with Wong (2004) that high uncertainty avoidance is likely to have a significant impact on repurchase intention because individuals with high uncertainty levels seek to minimize service defect potentials. Therefore, the uncertainty avoidance plays a very significant part in analyzing the purchase habits of targeting customers in order to meet their special needs. Thirdly, the individualism and collectivism are associated with who can get the priority, the individual or the group. In Hofstedes opinion (1991), employed persons in an individualist culture are expected to act according to their own interest, and work should be organized in such a way that this self-interest and the employers interest coincide, while in a collectivist culture an employer will hire a person who belongs to an in-group, which may not always coincide with his or her individual interest. Hofstede discovered that people in Western societies traditionally demonstrate a high degree of individualism, whereas in Chinese societies, people demonstrate a high level of collectivism. (Bargiela-Chiappini, Harris 1997: 39) In individualist societies, the relationship between employers and employees is primarily conceived as business traction, a calculative relationship between buyers and sellers on a labor market. On the contrary, in the collectivist mind only natural persons are worthy of trust, and via these persons their friends and colleagues, but not impersonal legal entities like a company. (Hofstede 1991: 64, 67) Therefore, when dealing with companies coming from individual societies, we should jump into the business and accomplish the deal efficiently, while, when doing business with companies coming from collectivism cultures, wed better build friendship with our partners to enhance the trust. Then, comes to masculinity and femininity, which relates to the approach to which people aim to reach their target. The masculinity societies are more ambitious, which pay great attention to achievements and obtaining properties, while feminine societies are more sensitive, which focus on life quality and public relations. Therefore these two kinds of societies are skilled in different types of industries. Industrially developed masculine cultures have a competitive advantage in manufacturing, especially in large production of big and heavy equipment and in bulk chemistry. Contrary to this, feminine cultures have a relative advantage in service industries like consulting and transport, customer-specified manufacturing, and high-yield agriculture and biochemistry, which are related to live matters. (Hofstede 1991: 95) Thus, masculine society gives us an impression of utilitarian and ambitious character, and feminine society provides us an impression of sensitive character. According t o some related experiments, it shows that masculine web documents rely heavily on facts, particularly numerical facts. Whereas most masculine documents rely on factual and numerical rhetoric signifiers, feminine documents tend to rely on intuition and feeling signifiers with a higher degree of flexibility and non-specificity (Zahedi, Van Pelt, Srite), which suggests that impersonal data is essential when we deal with masculine societies, however, when trading with feminine societies, we should pay attention to humanization and flexibility. Last but not least, long-term orientation focuses on distinguishing the difference in thinking styles between the Eastern and Western societies. In Yeung and Tungs opinion, members of East-Asian cultures such as Korea, Japan, China mainland, and Hong Kong tend to understand social interactions under the circumstance of the long-term. Their personal, social and business relationships are maintained and reinforced through continuous and long-term associations. On the contrary, in the West, social transactions of all types are more often seen as isolated occurrences. The objective of any transaction is to achieve optimal à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬ ¢give and take in that particular transaction. An emphasis is placed on immediate gains from the interaction (Ryu, Cook 2005). Long term oriented traders aim to develop lifetime relations. Not only a transactions calculated pay-off counts; the resulting relation is of value by itself. Given the choice, a long term oriented trader would not neglect a pro posal from a known relation in order to make a one more attractive one time deal with a stranger. Short term oriented traders are not interested to develop long lasting relations. They want to make attractive deals as soon as possible. Their preferences in partner selection depend on other dimensions of culture, but they may be interested in doing business with high status partners to show off. (Hofstede, Jonker, Verwaart) However, culture is not static, and it changes due to some traumatic events and the change of peoples everyday life. It is known that traumatic events have been part of our mutual experience for years. In recent years, we have experienced the devastating effects of the terrorist attack world widely. Globally, the world has lived through the 2004 Tsunami in Asia and many other disasters. The traumatic experiences of war and drought have brought dramatic changes to patterns of sociocultural and family organization. Given human beings dependence on culture, its loss, or deprivation can become traumatic (Devereux, 1980; De Vries, 1996; Eisenbruch, 1991). These huge events have resulted in the undermining of the social safety, employed guarantees, and a crazy wave of patriotism, which influenced peoples attitudes and life styles. As Chaney (2002) stated, the uncertainties about how everyday life is changing are related to developments in a culture of mass entertainment and therefore disti nctive to modern era. In conclusion, culture with its great power that can create an unconscious matrix of ideas and images (Seel 2008) do have impacts on international business in a lot of aspects, like languages, religions, history, and social institutions, since every business function-managing a workforce, marketing output, purchasing supplies, dealing with regulators, securing funds-is subject to potential cultural problems. (Daniels, Radebaugh, Sullivan 2006: 75) On the other hand, culture change has been happened unconsciously due to the improvement of humans civilization and popular immigration, which spur business people to keep pace of the change of culture to learn the latest trend in destination countries or societies.

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Classification Essay: Three Types of Friends :: Classification Essay

  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In life we come across many people. Some will hate us while others will adore us. The ones who hate us can be referred to as enemies and the ones who show us adoration are referred to as friends. There are three types of friends. They are the aquaintinces we make in school, the friends we loose as one grows, and best friends who may stray, but never too far away.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  First of all, there are those friends that are only seen in school. Seeing them on the street is like they are not even there. One may have known them throughout their whole school career, but have never talked to them outside of school. These school aqquaintinces are nice people to talk to , but there is never an effort to do anything more than that. These friends are good because there are never any chances to take with them. One just talks to them and then they go on their merry way. These school aqquaintinces are the peopl who are talked to about different hoobies and class studies. Not ones personal life. School aquaitnices are the people that one will not see for the first time until the schools ten year reunion.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Second, there are former friends. These are the ones taht grew up in ones neighborhood and moved away. These are the friends who will bring back memories that people thoght were forgotten. One might be embarassed at first about seeing their former friend, but as soon as conversation begins all the embarassement will be a thing of the past. Former friends are the ones that little secrets about meaqningless ideas were told to as a child, or the person who spent countlerss nights at ones house sleeping over. These are the people that knew ones parents very well, almost as well as the friend was known. Tehen all of a sudden out of nowhere this former friend is never spoken again to for years. Former friends give a sense of oldness to a person. In the long run they are good to have and to talk to.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Finally, there are best friends who are the people that have been known all their lives or even just a few years. These friends regardless male or female can talk to a friend about anything on their mind. Many experiences have occured between two best friends or even a group of best friends. These kinds of friends share a common bnd that will last forever. Intimate secrets and special favors are all traits in which best friends can rely on each other for. Classification Essay: Three Types of Friends :: Classification Essay   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In life we come across many people. Some will hate us while others will adore us. The ones who hate us can be referred to as enemies and the ones who show us adoration are referred to as friends. There are three types of friends. They are the aquaintinces we make in school, the friends we loose as one grows, and best friends who may stray, but never too far away.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  First of all, there are those friends that are only seen in school. Seeing them on the street is like they are not even there. One may have known them throughout their whole school career, but have never talked to them outside of school. These school aqquaintinces are nice people to talk to , but there is never an effort to do anything more than that. These friends are good because there are never any chances to take with them. One just talks to them and then they go on their merry way. These school aqquaintinces are the peopl who are talked to about different hoobies and class studies. Not ones personal life. School aquaitnices are the people that one will not see for the first time until the schools ten year reunion.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Second, there are former friends. These are the ones taht grew up in ones neighborhood and moved away. These are the friends who will bring back memories that people thoght were forgotten. One might be embarassed at first about seeing their former friend, but as soon as conversation begins all the embarassement will be a thing of the past. Former friends are the ones that little secrets about meaqningless ideas were told to as a child, or the person who spent countlerss nights at ones house sleeping over. These are the people that knew ones parents very well, almost as well as the friend was known. Tehen all of a sudden out of nowhere this former friend is never spoken again to for years. Former friends give a sense of oldness to a person. In the long run they are good to have and to talk to.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Finally, there are best friends who are the people that have been known all their lives or even just a few years. These friends regardless male or female can talk to a friend about anything on their mind. Many experiences have occured between two best friends or even a group of best friends. These kinds of friends share a common bnd that will last forever. Intimate secrets and special favors are all traits in which best friends can rely on each other for.

Internet Plagiarism Essay -- Plagiarizing Cheating Copyright Essays

Internet Plagiarism Plagiarism used to be easy to catch. It always took real work for a student to try to pass off someone else’s work as his or her own. Different sources of plagiarizing included copying texts from the library and buying old papers off of other students. There were not many resources to choose from where a student’s topic was contained. That has now changed. There is a little thing called the Internet. It has revolutionized the plagiarism world and made it a little more difficult for educators to catch plagiarism culprits. There are some tools out now, however, that are aiding this new battle. Since the Internet came along plagiarism has become a lot easier to accomplish; at least for the time being. What exactly is considered plagiarizing and how is it punished? â€Å"To plagiarize is to steal and use the ideas or writings of another as one’s own. Legally, plagiarism has been defined as the act of appropriating the literary composition of another, or parts or passages of his/her writings, or languages of the same, and passing them off as the products of one’s own mind.† [1] Basically what this is saying is that plagiarism is when someone takes another’s idea and calls it his or her own by either not citing properly or merely just trying to take full credit. There are three different ways a paper or a section of a paper can be plagiarized. The first way is quotations. Quotations must always be worded exactly and then cited exactly. The citation needs to be precisely from where it was found and do not forget to put quotations marks around the quoted section. The second form of plagiarizing is through paraphrasing. Paraphrasing involves taking other sources ideas and putting them into your own words. When... ...html). These programs also cost varying sums. [10] Until the Internet came along, plagiarism was difficult. There were not enough sources on a specific topic at a student’s fingertips to effectively pull it off. Plagiarism is a major offense and needs to be taken seriously. Students just cannot seem to resist cheating and trying to make their life a little easier by letting someone else do the work that they are getting credit for. Now that there is the Internet, new doors have opened for plagiarists and it is keeping educators on their toes. Teachers now need to make little modifications on their assignments and they need to keep a careful watch on students as they work on papers. New technology such as search engines, detection services and detection software are helping aid teachers keep plagiarism to a minimum. Soon it will be hard to plagiarize once again.

Friday, July 19, 2019

Presentation Methods :: essays research papers

There are many different ways to train. Indeed, entire books have been written on the ways to deliver training. How can a manager charged with training his or her employees choose an appropriate method? This article defines some of the most common training methods and reviews pros and cons for each one. The method by which training is delivered often varies based on the needs of the company, the trainee, and on the task being performed. The method should suit the audience, the content, the business ¡Ã‚ ¦ environment, and the learning objective. Ideally, the method chosen will motivate employees to learn, help employees prepare themselves for learning, enable the trainees to apply and practice what they've been taught, help trainees retain and transfer what they have learned, and integrate performance with other skills and knowledge. Other factors affecting the choice of a training method include: -Age, gender, or level of education of the trainees -Learning styles of the trainees -Number of trainees -Budget -Trainer's skills and training style Common group training methods include: Lecture A lecture is the method learners often most commonly associate with college and secondary education. Yet, it is also considered one of the least effective methods to use for adult learners. In this method, one person (the trainer) does all of the talking. He or she may use handouts, visual aids, question/answer, or posters to support the lecture. Communication is primarily one-way: from the instructor to the learner. Pros: Less time is needed for the trainer to prepare than other methods. It provides a lot of information quickly when it is less important that the trainees retain a lot of details. Cons: Does not actively involve trainees in training process. The trainees forget much information if it is presented only orally. Demonstration Demonstration is very effective for basic skills training. The trainer shows trainees how to do something. The trainer may provide an opportunity for trainees to perform the task being demonstrated. Pros: This method emphasizes the trainee involvement. It engages several senses: seeing, hearing, feeling, touching. Cons: It requires a great deal of trainer preparation and planning. There also needs to be an adequate space for the training to take place. If the trainer is not skilled in the task being taught, poor work habits can be learned by the trainee. Seminar Seminars often combine several group methods: lectures, discussions, conferences, demonstrations.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Reward Strategy: Reasons and Perspectives Essay

Modern business environment is famous for various new trends. An environment where the businesses used to hire employees for the sake of monetary benefits only is now changed in multi dimensional and multi pronged environment. Now business are not run for the sake of money and short term financial benefits only but for a long time sustainable growth and development. Now the only focus of all business is customer  and Customer Satisfaction. This Customer Satisfaction (CS) cannot be achieved without proper involvement of internal customers i. e. , employees. Companies start their business philosophy from their main goals or objectives and make clear statements showing their mission and values. All lateral developments are performed on the basis of these predetermined values. Modern businesses focus only on customer satisfaction and this is the core concept of business as well. Who is Responsible for Customer Satisfaction? Now question is the responsibility of achieving customer satisfaction without any failure. Many plans are made for wining customer satisfaction, but all would be failure if company is not sure about the persons, method and tactics of achieving customer satisfaction. Whole management and its team is responsible for achieving business results so is the customer satisfaction. Modern management has no doubt in it that customer satisfaction can only be achieved if all employees regardless their departments work hard to satisfy customer. Conclusion is all employees are responsible for achieving and maintaining customer satisfaction on long term basis. How would Employees work for Achieving Customer Satisfaction? Employees are important for achieving customer satisfaction then the responsibility comes how these employees should work for achieving high standards of customer satisfaction? It’s an open secret that employees mainly intend to work for the physical work giving to them according to their job description. Though companies make different efforts to ensure quantitative and qualitative efforts to ensure performance of employees but there is not specific way to know how do employees behave and work for achieving customer satisfaction. As per Hertz Berg’s two factor motivation theory, people treat salary and working environment as routine requirement of their jobs and don’t fee motivated on the basis of nominal salaries. For doing something extra, they need motivation and for motivation they need to be given something extra by the employer. To overcome problems and obstacles on their way to customer satisfaction, companies design a special approach to involve employees into their challenging task of customer satisfaction. Reward Strategy Why do people work is the question often answered differently by all respondents. Few people surely confirm the cause of their work, mostly are trapped in wordy reasons like, just to make my life comfortable, to earn my livelihood, to support my family, to spend my spare time or to establish myself. Business psychologists still fail to understand the only common reason among people who work at different places. Similar to the concepts of employees, business researchers and scholars are also divided on certain human needs and employees’ concern bout growth. But all researchers and business psychologists are of the opinion that rewards really award. If you give rewards to your employees reward, they will award business with better results. Various rewards to employees make different behavioural and motivational changes in their personalities. Almost modern business and non-business organizations believe in good reward system that would base on financial compensation or Remuneration, certain benefits regardless their job hierarchy and business status, and perquisites of different types based on hierarchy. These three factors make the most successful blend of modern reward package. As such package is a motivating blend of financial and non-financial benefits, this suites majority of people.

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Course outline of managing organisation course

Law Theatre (604) Wednesday 16ooh- 1800 Thursday gooh- alooh Friday 1400 1600 You argon as soundly as required to attend ONE (1) wizard hour tutorial per week. there are a bit of tutorial options for turn arounders. cheer see the NUNS enrolment system for enlarge of tutorial times. tutorials start in week 2 (to Week 13). A entire list of tutorials, times and tutors allow be on the mark Website. 2. 2 Units of recognition The hightail it is worth 6 units of credit. There is no parallel precept in this shape of instruction. 2. 3 Summary of grade Managing Organizations and raft is a buttocksal fondness execute offered in the main bachelor degree programs.This course introduces students to the knowledge and skills required to successfully get by organizations and people in a spheric economy, based on contemporary explore and practice. The course is designed to provide unafraid foundations for the development of future organizational leading and managers who p ass on be suit subject to successfully respond to complex and turbulent environments, evoke and sustain competitive advantage, ensure honourable and favorable righteousness in occupancy practice and decision making, and manage ever-changing companionable, increasingly global and diverse workplace.Topics overwhelm the role of organizations in odder societies, sustainability and corporate neighborly responsibility, the splendour of organizational leadership, power and ne tworks, sources of conflict, bformer(a) solution, group motivation and behavior, as well as professional person skills. 2. 4 Course Aims and Relationship to Other Courses The aim of exercise is to provide you with an introduction to principles, practices, issues and debates that are germane(predicate) to the management of organizations.You lead study concepts and theories that financial aid explain the attitudes and behaviors of employees and managers. As a core course in the Bachelor of traffic deg ree, the activities, materials and assessments imbibe been designed to provide students with the probability to develop skills applicable to their studies and employment. 2. 5 pupil breeding Outcomes 2. 1 scholarly person breeding Outcomes By the end of this course, you should be able to Content imports 1 . Explain the telephone exchange role of organizations in society 2. measure the protect and importance of the human spatial relation of organizations 3. Scribe the interconnections between individual(s), team(s) and organization(s) 4. Understand the verbal communication of organizations and management Skills outcomes 5. Acquire foundational academic search skills 6. Monster familiarity with the process of critical abstract 7. conjure up your efficaciousness in on the job(p) in groups and teams 8. Learn independently and turn out responsibility for the learning process asp viper Undergraduate Program tuition Goals and Outcomes 1 . Knowledge Our graduates will h ave in-depth disciplinal knowledge applicable in local anaesthetic and global contexts.You should be able to award and apply disciplinary knowledge to crease situations in a local and global environment. 2. particular thinking and problem solving Our graduates will be critical thinkers and in force(p) problem solvers. You should be able to chance on and search issues in equines situations, analyses the issues, and propose becharm and well-justified solutions. 3. Communication Our graduates will be effective professional communicators. You should be able to and display for the intended audience, purpose and context, and b.Prepare and deliver oral presentations that are give the axe, focused, well- complex body partd, and delivered in a professional manner. 4. Teamwork Our graduates will be effective team participants. You should be able to participate collaboratively and responsibly in teams, and reflect on your suffer teamwork, and on the teams processes and ability to pass on outcomes. . Ethical, social and environmental responsibility Our graduates will have a sound awareness of the ethical, social, ethnic and environmental implications of business practice.You should be able to a. Identify and assess ethical, environmental and/or sustainability considerations in business decision-making and practice, and b. Identify social and cultural implications of business situations. The interest sidestep shows how your Course Learning Outcomes relate to the general Program Learning Goals and Outcomes, and indicates where these are assessed (they may also be developed in tutorials and other activities) Program Learning Goals and Outcomes, and indicates where these are assessed.Program Learning Goals and Outcomes Course Learning Outcomes Course Assessment Item This course helps you to achieve the chase learning goals for all asp viper undergraduate students On successful windup of the course, you should be able to This learning outcome will be assess ed in the following items 1 Knowledge tutorial activities naming 1 subsidisation 2 Critical thinking and problem solving 5. examine familiarity with the process of critical digest tutorial activities Exam Written communication 6. produce your effectiveness in working in groups and teams 7. Earn independently and come upon responsibility for the learning process team activeness Spot examine b oral exam communication 8. Learn independently and assume responsibility for the learning process Tutorial participation mark 4 Teamwork 7. Enhance your effectiveness in working in groups and teams Tutorial participation mark Ethical, environmental and sustainability responsibility 2. Evaluate the value and importance of the human side of organizations Spot quiz b. Social and cultural awareness 3. secern the interconnections between individual(s), team(s) and organization(s) 4. 1 Approach to Learning and Teaching in the Course operation has been designed to provide you with a achieve learning pay off that incorporates synergetic teaching and learning and provides a strong foundation for successful studies in your Bachelors degree. We encourage student partings, through discussion and questioning that get behind upon your reading and life experiences. 3. 2 Learning Activities and Teaching Strategies Role of Lectures The lectures provide a forum to introduce students to the main issues, theories and conceptual frameworks for each topic.Lecture nones for each seeks topic will be available on the course website on the preceding Sunday. For example, the Week 4 lecture handout will be available to you on the Sunday ahead the lecture week. There will be specific indata formattingion provided in the lectures to uphold you in the spot quizzes Role of the Tutorial The tutorials use a variety of experiential learning activities which encourage active enfolding in the tutorials. The weekly tutorials provide you with an interactive environment to enhance your form al and lax learning in the course.The more scrupulously you participate, the more you will enjoy and learn from the tutorials. The tutorials also provide you with opportunities to improve significant interpersonal skills by working with other students in groups and teams, building relationships and networks, and being expose to the opinions and values of others. Role of Everest cloak The Everest Simulation provides students with a hands-on experience of concepts taught in this course.Abele S, & Starters G, 2008, Coordination Success and Interpersonal Perceptions Matching Versus Mismatching, ledger of Personality and Social Psychology, Issue plenty 95(3), September, p 576-592 Brother D A, 2012, Self-Monitoring Tools and Student Academic Success When Perception Matches Reality, daybook of College Science Teaching. 5 Mammon 26-32. AND 2. You essential break at least TWO (2) and a maximum of FOUR (4) academic articles in the allowing library databases ABA Inform Business ref erence work Web of Science that are relevant to support your analysis. Note websites and books are not valid sources for this assignment.Marking criteria Development of a consistent, clear and well-supported answer to the question Overall feeling of analysis, depth of reflection/ thinking in terms of the key themes and issues raised in the question Quality of academic research (sourced from appropriate Journals/ databases, appropriate number of sources, relevancy of sources to your argument) Appropriate structure (logical sequence transitions teens move well-developed paragraphs) lucidness of expression & grammar Correct format of in-text citations and bibliography development Harvard style .DUDE Harvard Guide) Appropriate register formatting as per requirements on partitioning 4. 6 of the Course Outline and space (1,000 address +1- 10%) 4. 3. 2 assignment 2 Requirements Report 30% of closing mark Due date At WEEK 11 in the tutorial. You must also upload an identical fei gn via Turn-it-in on or before your ascribable date or your assignment will not be marked. Submission unconscious process See persona 4. 4 Assignment Submission Procedure in this ours precis Weighting 30% of your total course mark Length 2,500 words +1- 10% The word count must be disclosed on the coversheet of your report.Report Focus critically analyses your individual and teams experiences in a practical(prenominal)(prenominal) world and as a somatogenic team by using the results in the Everest simulation using the following troika course concepts 1) Communication (including distribution effect) 2) groups and teams and 3) leadership The report must address the following areas Included in word jump Assignment cover sheet No Title pageboy Executive succinct Table of contents Introduction Yes (approve 250 words) bole Critically analyses your individual and teams experiences and results in the two Everest simulations using the following three course concepts 1 .Communicati on including distribution effect 2. Groups and teams including virtual teams 3. Leadership Yes (approve 2100 words) Conclusion (Briefly summarizing what you have learnt from the experience) Yes (approve 1 50 words) List of references / bibliography Compulsory appendices all students who were participants (not observers) in Everest must tie up a copy of the Goals on Track page from the simulation All students (participants & observers) must attach a copy of team get down NoReference requirements You must use a negligible of six (6) academic references to support your analysis Marking criteria and issues raised in the Everest experience Quality of academic research (appropriate number of academic sources, relevance of sources to your argument) Appropriate structure (logical sequence transitions between parts well-developed paragraphs) Clarity of expression & grammar Correct in-text citations and bibliography format using Harvard style . DUDE Harvard Guide) Correct account formatt ing as per requirements in section 4. 6 of the Course Outline, length (2,500 words +1- 10%), and inclusion of compulsory appendices.More schooling about the Everest Simulation can be found in the Student Workbook, and counsellor will be provided to students during the semester via the course website. 4. 3. 3 Individual confederacy 20% of final mark Tutorial Attendance and conflict (5%) Preparation for, and active participation in, your lectures and seminars is a vital component of the learning in this subject and as such students who touch on and participate in the familyroom will be rewarded. Participation may move small group discussion, short unceremonial presentations to the class, answering questions, participation in class discussion.Participation marks are based on the degree to which students make an informed contribution to class and small group discussion. manifestly attending tutorials without getting involved in class discussion is of little value to you or you r classmates and will result in a minimal participation mark. To be eligible for the Tutorial Attendance and Participation mark students must attend a minimum of nine(9) tutorials. Students must ensure their attendance is taken. If students have a valid former to be absent, documentary evidence (e. G. saturate certificate) must be presented to the tutor in the next tutorial. Grading