Tuesday, November 26, 2019
Nakamura Lacquer Company Essays Nakamura Lacquer Company Essay Nakamura Lacquer Company Essay EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Our Company has limited growth in Domestic Market as we are already the best seller. We are having no international business. As classified by the Government of Japan, we cannot invest abroad hence should think seriously about export. The National China Company, the largest manufacturer of good quality dinnerware in United States has offered the annual purchase of 400000 sets of our product at 5% extra price for three years. Semmelback, Semmelbach and Whittacker, Chicago, the largest supplier of hotel and restaurant supplies in Unites States and buyers of dinnerware and similar goods for a number of department stores are willing to represent our Ã¢â¬Å"ChrysanthemumÃ¢â¬ brand for five years at a) standard commission rates and b) first 20% on all the sales Our Company will make during that time to recover the investment they are bearing for the introduction and promotion in United State. SITUATION ANALYSIS Our company is a market leader in domestic market. We are having no international business. For future growth, Company has to target the other segments of domestic market and to start exporting. Classified by the Government of Japan, We cannot invest money abroad. The National China Company has demanded for fixed order and Semmelback, Semmelbach and Whittacker, Chicago is willing to represent the company in United State. Both the offers canÃ¢â¬â¢t be accepted together. STATEMENT OF OPTIONS ?Domestic Market ?International Market Export to other countries. Offer from the National China Company. The offer from Semmelback, Semmelbach and Whittacker, Chicago. CRITERIA OF EVALUATION 1. Existing production level 2. Investment 3. Selling price 4. Profit 5. Brand Value 6. Time period required 7. Risk involved 8. Market segments EVALUATION OF OPTIONS 1. Existing production level: A substantial business, employing several thousand labors and production of 500000 sets of lacquer table ware each year so as to meet the demand from domestic market. Significant changes need to be done in the Company to trade internationally. 2. Growth: Company has a limited growth in Domestic Market as we are already the best seller. We are having a very little or no international business. The first offer enables us 80% more efficient company than the existing one after three years. While the second offer brings more potential in companyÃ¢â¬â¢s growth in United State. 3. Investment: Optimum utilization of available resources is required if we need to cut down the expenses incurred in meeting the new demand. For domestic market, there will be no major rise in production cost whereas for international business, cost involved is more for changes required in meeting the standards of other countries, labor cost, expansion of production set up and company set up as the demand will be 80% in first offer and for second offer, demand may rise to a couple of million sets. . Market segments: We need to launch the new brand with better quality to tap high-class consumers in Japan. The other market segments like Hotel and Restaurant have to be identified. 5. Selling price: No major increase in price is applicable in domestic market. In case of other market segments, the price is to be comparable with price of existing. In export increase in price is more applicable. First offer has assured 5% increase in price where as in second offer; higher prices can be induced as the customers are like Hotels and restaurants. 6. Profit: The overall profit will be less initially if company introduces brands for segments in domestic market and will grow in the long run but the percent profit will be more or less same. The overall profit and profit percent will be more in the long run if company opts for export. First offer promises fixed rise of 5% in profit percent whereas in second offer overall profit and change in percent profit depends on the response from the customers. 7. Brand Value: Company will achieve more stability in domestic market as we will have brands for different market segments. First offer doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t contribute in brand establishment whereas in second offer, after five years brand will be established in United State and company will be globally projected. 8. Time period required: Time period may vary as per the response of the other market segments to our brands. In the first offer, after three years, company will be potentially double than the existing one whereas in the second offer, minimum of five years are required to establish the brand. The time period may be more than five years if the response of the customers not found positive. 9. Risk involved: Expansion of business in domestic market is less risky as our company is well established. First offer brings no risk as the offer is fixed in quantity and price whereas in second offer, the risk involved is very high. If the response turned out to be less promising, the cost incurred in increasing the production level, set up will be hard to recover. RECOMMENDATIONS 1. To invest for other market segments in Japan. 2. The company should accept the first offer. 3. The company should look at the similar opportunities as the second offer for the business in other countries. ACTION PLAN: 1. A market survey of Japan to understand the exact need from the different segments. 2. Evaluation of our companyÃ¢â¬â¢s current production capacity. Optimization of labor cost. 3. Survey of international market to understand the requirements from different countries and to know the major competitors available and their market share. CONTINGENCY PLAN: ?We need not worry about the possibility of failure while meeting the demand generated by The National china Company. ?Failure to tap the other segments of domestic market will not cost the company much.
Friday, November 22, 2019
250 Topics for Familiar Essays (Writing Suggestions) This list of 250 subjects for familiar essays originally appeared as an appendix to Essays and Essay-Writing, an anthology edited by William M. Tanner and published by the Atlantic Monthly Press in 1917. But dont let the date scare you away. While a few of the topics are musty (Our Ragtime Age) and some are a bit perplexing (Grooves and Graves), the majority of these topics are as timely (or perhaps timeless) as ever (The Shrinking Earth, Illusions We Live By, Our Nervous Age). Tanners brief introduction strikes an encouraging note: In no other form of prose composition is the selection of a subject so much a matter of the writers own choosing as in the familiar essay. Though adequate subjects can rarely be assigned by another person, it is possible that the student may find in the following list a few titles that suggest subjects of interest to him and within the range of his observation and experience. So remain open to these suggestions. Feel free to update a topicfor example, by turning telephone etiquette into email or texting behaviors. If youre puzzled by a subject, dont try to decipher what the author intended a century ago. Instead, take a few minutes to explore its possible meanings for you today. 250 Topics for Familiar Essays 1. On Discovering Oneself2. On Deceiving Oneself3. Epidemic Education4. The Pleasures of Loafing5. Favorite Antipathies6. On Wearing New Shoes7. The Penalty of Violating Convention8. First Impressions9. On Acquiring an Artistic Temperament10. A Model Obituary 11. Uses of Disagreeable People12. Keeping up Appearances13. The Psychology of Bargains14. People Who Make-Believe15. Conceited People16. Our Nervous Age17. Sophomore Apathy18. The Enchantment of Distance19. On Being Worth Knowing20. The Glory of the Commonplace 21. Mental Laziness22. On Thinking for Oneself23. The Necessity of Being Amused24. Mans Opinion of Himself25. On Giving Advice26. Silent Talkers27. My Ailments28. The Valor of Ignorance29. An Apology for Bores30. College Libraries as Social Centers 31. Judging by Appearances32. On Making Excuses33. The Pleasure of Escape34. A Word for Mediocrity35. On Attending to Other Peoples Business36. The Heritage of the Youngest Child37. Academic Snobbishness38. On Being Small89. A Defense of Day-Dreaming40. Leaders and Led 41. The Excitement of Having a Bank Account42. By-Products of Church Attendance43. Fashionable Tardiness44. The Penalties of Success45. On Looking Ones Best46. Cultural Immunity47. Personality in Apparel48. The Responsibility of Greatness49. On Recovering from Love Affairs50. The Passing of the Country Road 51. Mute Eloquence52. On Choosing Ones Ancestors53. The Psychology of Patent Medicines54. Helpful Enemies55. The Tyranny of Trifles56. Intellectual Alarm Clocks57. The Monotony of Student Life58. Table Manners59. On Holding Ones Tongue60. Dangers of Narrowmindedness 61. The Tendency to Exaggerate Misfortune62. Outgrown Opinions63. On Making Apologies for Oneself64. My TaskmasterDuty65. Talkers66. The Character of Horses67. Why the Dessert Course Last?68. On Being Introduced69. Running on Low Gear70. Etiquette for Ancestors 71. On Going Barefooted72. Cast-off Enthusiasms73. The Joys of the Country Cottager74. On Answering Advertisements75. Reflections While Shaving76. Shams77. Intellectual Inheritances78. The Imperious They79. On Knowing When to Stop80. Personality in the Handshake 81. Hairpins82. On Taking Oneself Too Seriously83. A Curse of Cleverness84. Living Caricatures85. On Repenting at Leisure86. Imitations87. The Joys of Procrastination88. Popular Fallacies89. Men Say90. Human Parasites 91. On Looking Wise92. Mechanical Pleasures93. Sponges94. On Waiting for the Postman95. Intellectual Pioneers96. Animal Resemblances in People97. The Pleasures of Quarreling98. Bird Music99. Victims of Charity100. On Being Misunderstood 101. Some False Impressions of Childhood102. Rivalry in Gift-Giving103. Faces and Masks104. On Posing for My Friends105. Seasonal Joys106. The Value of Disagreement107. The Pleasures of Living108. Garden Friends109. Animal Facial Expressions110. Automobile Society 111. On Outgrowing Ones Family112. The Abuse of the Imagination113. Humorous Blunders114. Getters and Receivers115. On Praying in Public116. Pleasures of Memory117. My Selves118. A Plea for Ghosts119. On Keeping a Secret120. Color Antipathies 121. The Art of Eating Spaghetti122. Pins or Angels?123. On Going to Sleep124. Human Blindness125. Dream Adventures126. Behind the Teeth127. On Riding Pegasus with Spurs128. Butterfly Fancies129. Present130. The Glamour of the Past 131. Chameleons132. On Being Good Company for Oneself133. Face Value134. The Monotony of Being Good135. Safety Valves in Student Life136. On Being Mentally Alert137. Company Manners138. Natures Spring Song139. Mountains and Molehills140. Old-fashioned Remedies 141. On Wearing Overshoes142. The Influence of Proximity143. Bristles144. Working Over-Time145. On Nursing a Grievance146. Family Expectations147. Mental Perspective148. Subway Scenery149. The Futility of the Practical150. On Making Up Ones Mind 151. The Responsibility of a Perfect Baby152. Domineering Ideals153. On Living in the Present (Future)154. Social Misfits155. Interesting By-Paths156. Temporal Halos157. Face Forward!158. Mental Vagrancy159. On Hugging a Conclusion160. An Apology for Polite Lying 161. Preparedness162. Gasoline and Onions163. On Stepping Aside164. Voices165. Late Arrivals166. Next!167. Mental Detours168. Watch Your Step!169. On Telling Jokes170. Epitaph Humor 171. The Winged Circle172. Spring Styles in Freshmen173. American Aggressiveness174. Natures Languages175. Earthbound176. On Advising the Almighty177. Mental Lapses178. Fashion Bondage179. Haunted Libraries180. The Humor of Cartoons 181. Wasting Time182. On Growing Up183. Beyond My Horizon184. Mental Shock-Absorbers185. After He Was Dead186. Successful Failures187. The Dilettante188. Humorous Dyspepsia189. On Becoming Ones Own Financier190. Conservation of Social Resources 191. Perfume and the Lady192. On Being Eye-Minded193. The Satisfaction of Being Well-Dressed194. Earth Odors195. The Life Urge in Nature196. The Shrinking Earth197. College Ethics198. The Triumph of the Machine199. Human Gadflies200. The Failure of Success 201. Social Eclipses202. Adventures While Pursuing an Idea203. Our Ragtime Age204. On Boasting of Weakness205. Discords206. Suspended Judgments207. Second Thoughts208. On Keeping Step209. Understudies210. The Vogue of Boredom 211. Smoke Wreaths212. Traveling and Arriving213. Echoes214. Screens, Past and Present215. Illusions We Live By216. On Losing Ones Grip217. Poppies218. Anvil Choruses219. Interesting Pathetic Fallacies220. Evidences of Humor and Joy in Animals 221. On Card-Indexing Ones Friends222. Gigglers and Growlers223. Too Much Momentum224. Mental Indigestion225. Diddling226. Female Orators227. Laughter as a Social Asset228. Personal Reactions229. Grooves and Graves230. On Taking Thought for the World 231. Blind Optimism232. Church Theatricals233. The Skimmed Milk of Human Kindness234. On Asking Why235. Canine Expressions236. On Seeing Ones Name in Print237. Backyard Gardens238. Curiosity in Chickens239. The Passing of Modesty240. On Going to War 241. Telephone Manners242. Nodding243. Social Protective Coloring244. On Arising to the Occasion245. Human Registers246. The Responsibility of Being Sane247. Acid Tests248. The Pleasures of Eating249. On Losing Ones Freckles250. Mental Precipitates
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Discussion questions for Managing Diversity Class (third week) - Essay Example However, The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 completely changed the situation and made it possible for people with incurable diseases to get a job. In order to get the treatment you need it is important to know your rights well. In fact millions of discriminated workers donÃ¢â¬â¢t know their rights. For example, people who work for companies with 14 or fewer people are not protected by federal law. Those people who work for the federal government also can not be protected by this act. There are several ways the act protects the rights of people with incurable diseases. There were lots of obstacles that kept people with some disabilities from full participation in a social life and that was intended to be break down by the Congress. In order to combat discrimination, Congress enacted The Civil Rights Act of 1964. In accordance with Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, an employer had no right to hire or fire any employee or to discriminate against him/her basing on his/her race, color, religious beliefs or origin. In general, Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 became a basis for further legal and moral pillars of America. Non-discriminative principles (either racial or gender) became the core issues for legal principles of America. Further extension of the scope of issue covered in Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 concerned conditions of equal employment opportunity (the Equal Employment Opportunity Act, 1972). This signified a perspective promotion of civil rights in America. Moreover, further amendments were made in 1978 in the Pregnancy Discrimination Act. Thus pregnant women could be neither fired nor discriminated in employment-related issues. Statistics of 2009 fiscal year provides the following figures: 33,579 complaints of race discrimination were received by EEOC, 28,028 related to sex discrimination and 3,386 reports of discrimination caused by religious discrimination. 11,134
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Methods and Techniques Used by Firms to Manage Earnings and the Motives behind Earnings Management - Coursework Example The value of this activity in large firms seems to be quite high at the level that firms of this size need to publish their reports regularly so that the public is informed about their performance. For this reason, the alteration of figures included in a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s financial reports has become a common practice, is related to the efforts for keeping the organizational performance standardized. Still, in the literature, a different view seems to be the most popular: the motives behind earning management cannot be easily accepted. Indeed, quite often earnings management is used for giving a different impression to the public in regard the performance of a particular organization. The motives related to earnings management are also presented in this paper, offering important explanations on the following question: could earnings management become popular in all countries worldwide or not? It is proved that earnings management is not related to geographical criteria; rather, it seems that the position of a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s in its industry and the targets set by the managers are used as criteria for deciding the introduction of earnings management in a particular organization. Earning management can be characterized as one of the most important organizational processes. A series of factors have been related to the expansion of earnings management across organizations of different characteristics. In practice, the particular process is often used for promoting personal interests rather than the interests of the organization. The above view is verified through the definition of earning management, as included in the study of Ronen & Yaari (2007). According to the above definition, Ã¢â¬Ëearning management occurs when managers exercise their discretion over the accounting numbers with or without restrictionsÃ¢â¬ ¦ such discretion can be either firm value maximizing or opportunisticÃ¢â¬â¢.
Saturday, November 16, 2019
Prepositional Phrases Essay Once, there was a little girl named Matilda. Her father worked for an organization concerned with the health of the people, so Matilda was used to traveling all across the city, and all over the world. At age seven, she demonstrated the abilities of an eighteen year old. Being exposed to the kind of work his father had, Matilda had always been filled with concern for those in need. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã As Matilda was walking home, she was interrupted by a citizen, who looked familiar to her. She realized that it was her old neighbor, Mrs. Paterson, who left their street three years ago. Matilda remembered her to be a very pretty lady who loved to help other people. Her family was rich, but she opted to live a very simple lifestyle. Unlike before, Mrs. Paterson looked differentÃ¢â¬âher clothes were shabby, her hair was chaotic, and her beautiful face was covered with dirt. Matilda was surprised with what she had seen, and asked Mrs. Paterson about it. Soon, Matilda learned that Mrs. Patersons husband had a gambling problem, causing them to lose all of their wealth. Mrs. Paterson broke into tears telling her that their only daughter, Morgan, who was only three years old, was diagnosed with a rare liver disease that could actually take her life. She had to undergo a new treatment and surgery that was costly for her parents. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Without hesitation, Matilda volunteered to help in order to give Morgan the treatment she needed. She had flyers distributed and posted around the park, and in the different areas in the city. Matilda was very much determined, with her friends doing much of the postings. Unsatisfied with the results, Matilda wrote to the mayor of their city to ask for assistance. The mayor was touched with Matildas kindness, and her story was known by everyone. It was even published in the newspaper, drawing much attention from the whole world. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In the end, Matilda was able to raise money for Morgans sensitive operation that practically saved her life. Mr. Mrs. Paterson were able to start anew with the money that Matilda had given them. Matilda, on the other hand, was filled with happiness and content for the good deed that she has done. The mayor, and the town, were deeply affected with the kindness that the little girl offered, giving Matilda her own Ã¢â¬Å"Matilda DayÃ¢â¬ , falling on her birthday. All is well.
Thursday, November 14, 2019
Odd Couple Themes and characters are most often the key factors that influence a writer's work. Most of the time the author has no control over this influence. This is clearly shown in Neil Simon's play, The Odd Couple. Not only is Simon's own life depicted in his play, but also the lives of those close to him, can be parallel to his work. Neil Simon's life is depicted in his characters and themes of his play, The Odd Couple. Marvin Neil Simon was born in the Bronx on July 4, 1927. His father, Irving, was a salesman in Manhattan's garment district; his mother Mamie worked in Gimbel's department store. The family moved to Washington Heights, in northern Manhattan, when Simon was young. Irving was an errant husband who occasionally abandoned the family altogether, leaving Mamie, a frustrated and bitter women, alone to deal with Neil and his older brother Danny. Eventually, the parents were divorced, and Neil went to live with relatives in Queens. From an early age, he exhibited a quick wit and an active imagination. He loved films and was often asked to leave the theater for laughing to loud. In high school, Simon was sometimes ostracized as a Jew, an experience that would later inform his work. Meanwhile, he and his brother began collaborating on comedy material that they sold to stand-up comics and radio announcers. Simon graduated from DeWitt Clinton High School in 1944 at the age of sixteen(Magill2216). He entered New York University under the US Army Airforce Reserve Program. Throughout his military career, he wrote for many military newspapers. Discharged in 1946, Simon took a job in the mail room at Warner Brothers in New York, where Danny worked in the publicity department. The brothers were soon hired to write for Goodman Ace of CBS, and over the next decade they provided material for many popular comedians. During the summers of 1952 and 1953, they wrote sketches for a professional acting company at Camp Tamiment, in Pennsylvania. At Camp Tamiment, Simon fell in love with a young actress named Joan Baim, and the couple was married on September 30, 1953. Five years later, Joan gave birth to a daughter, Ellen; a second daughter, Nancy, was born in 1963(Magill2261). In 1956, when Danny Simon moved to California to be a television director, Neil stayed in New York and wrote for many popular television shows. He also adapted broadway plays for television. By the later 1950's, however, he wanted more independence
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
The Rose of the World Why do we blame HelenÃ¢â¬â¢s beauty for the Trojan War or EveÃ¢â¬â¢s curious nature for AdamÃ¢â¬â¢s choice to eat the apple, thus beginning the mortal human civilization? Throughout history men have found it convenient to hold women responsible for their own weaknesses and intolerance. The apathy of anti-feminist and conservative movements showcases the reality of the Stockholm syndrome and medieval serfdom. Men have been the captors and the masters of the women for time in antiquity, but we still see empathy in women. Henry Kissinger could not have summarized it any better when he said, Ã¢â¬Å"Nobody will ever win the Battle of the Sexes. There is too much fraternizing with the enemy. Ã¢â¬ Tim OÃ¢â¬â¢BrienÃ¢â¬â¢s The Things They Carried is neither about the battle of sexes nor is it a feminist manifesto. The literary inferences, socio-political context, portrayal of various female characters, and their influence on the male characters truly depict changes in the social perception of gender roles, resulting conflict, and their outcome for American society. Along with all the things the men of the Alpha Company carried, they also took on the burden of feelings of love for the women they had left behind. Women are a source of motivation, inspiration, and comfort. Lieutenant Cross finds comfort and getaway from the war in his daydreams about Martha; for Henry Dobbins his girlfriendÃ¢â¬â¢s pantyhose are a reminder of her love, which he believes is a life-saving talisman; Norman Bowker can gather courage to talk to Sally Gustafson; and Fossie is madly in love with Mary-Anne to the extent that he arranges to fly her down to Vietnam. The interpretation of the word love has been romanticized to the extent that it never embodies the unwanted consequent feelings of anger, lust, objectification, jealousy, possessiveness, and insecurity. Jimmy CrossÃ¢â¬â¢ love metamorphosizes into lust and jealousy; he is obsessed with MarthaÃ¢â¬â¢s virginity and begins to scrutinize every single detail, even the shadows, in the photograph. Even though Martha has never confessed about her feeling towards Jimmy Cross, his feelings of jealousy and lust transforms into anger at the death of Ted Lavender. FossieÃ¢â¬â¢s love transforms into jealousy, possessiveness, and insecurity when he senses that Mary-Anne is drifting away from him. He finds it emasculating that Mary-Anne now prefers to spend more time with the Green Berets than with him and his colleagues. He conquers her by imposing marriage on her, which is evident when Rat Kiley says, Over dinner she kept her eyes down, poking at her food, subdues to the point of silence [Ã¢â¬ ¦. ] Nervously, sheÃ¢â¬â¢d look across the table at Fossie. SheÃ¢â¬â¢d wait a moment, as if to receive some sort of clearance, then sheÃ¢â¬â¢d bow her head and mumble out a vague word or two. There were no real answers (OÃ¢â¬â¢Brien 103). Mary-AnneÃ¢â¬â¢s state and FossieÃ¢â¬â¢s forceful proposition justify what Andrea Dworkin says about marriage: Ã¢â¬Å"Marriage as an institution developed from rape as a practice. Rape, originally defined as abduction, became marriage by capture. Marriage meant the taking was to extend in time, to be not only use of but also possession of, or ownership. Ã¢â¬ One can sense a feeling of victory, sarcasm, and pride in FossieÃ¢â¬â¢s tone when he says, Ã¢â¬Å"One thing for sure, though, there wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be any more ambushes. No more late nightsÃ¢â¬ ¦IÃ¢â¬â¢ll put this way-we weÃ¢â¬â¢re officially engagedÃ¢â¬ ¦Well hey, sheÃ¢â¬â¢ll make a sweet bride [Ã¢â¬ ¦. Combat readyÃ¢â¬ (OÃ¢â¬â¢Brien 103). This further justifies Andrea DworkinÃ¢â¬â¢s claims about marriage, conquest of women, and their subjugation by men. The idea of young soldiers going to war for their country, romanticizing about the love of their life, and coming home victorious to claim their trophies (the women they love), is so ideal and over sentimental. This idea would be classified as the story truth by Tim OÃ¢â¬â¢Brien, something everyone would like to hear, but the happening truth that accepts the word love with all its connotations is deemed too negative by the story truth. P. B. ShelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s poem Ã¢â¬Å"One Word Is Too often Profaned,Ã¢â¬ deals with ShelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s resolve not to use the word Ã¢â¬ËloveÃ¢â¬â¢ to express his feelings because it has been used so loosely that it has become too profane to express the feeling for love. One word is too often profaned For me to profane it; One feeling too falsely disdained For thee to disdain it; I can give not what men call love; But wilt thou accept not. The love stories of Jimmy Cross, Mark Fossie, and Henry Dobbins end in either rejection or despair. These stories are more about cathartic redemption and courage rather than failure and pain. Jimmy Cross is transformed into a utiful and responsible leader after detaching himself from Martha. The author assumes an introspective tone as he discloses Lieutenant CrossÃ¢â¬â¢ transformation in the following excerpt: There was the new hardness in his stomach. He loved her but he hated herÃ¢â¬ ¦No more fantasies, he told himself. He would accept the blame f or what had happened to Ted Lavender. He would be a man about it. He would look them in the eyes, keeping his chin level, and he would issue the new SOPs in a calm, impersonal tone of voice, a lieutenantÃ¢â¬â¢s voice, leaving no room for argument and discussionÃ¢â¬ (OÃ¢â¬â¢Brien 24-25). Henry Dobbins unlike Fossie, is able to keep himself together after his girlfriend leaves him, and now those stockings around his neck symbolize his resolve to withstand the pain of desertion and turn it into the strength to fight and stay alive in the war. DobbinÃ¢â¬â¢s commendable light-heartedness after reading his girlfriendÃ¢â¬â¢s break-up letter is evident when he says. Ã¢â¬Å"No sweat. The magic doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t go away,Ã¢â¬ as he wraps his neck with the stockings (OÃ¢â¬â¢Brien 118). Mark Fossie is in absolute misery after Mary-Anne rejects him, to the extent that he does not talk or eat for days and gives up on his own existence. He is in a worse condition than Cross and Dobbins, as he feels responsible for the rebellious transformation of Mary-Anne, thus bringing rejection upon himself. From the male perspective, Fossie would label Mary-AnneÃ¢â¬â¢s transformation as rebellious, which he tries to quell down by the proposition of marriage and engagement. But from a female perspective her transformation would be labeled as liberating. The Green Berets symbolize the renaissance men and social charters of the Ã¢â¬Ëtwenty firstÃ¢â¬â¢ century who treat women as equals. In contrast, Mary-Anne symbolizes and foreshadows the emergence of the assertive women who are impervious to gender bias, and are not afraid to leave the shelter of men for achieving their own goals. Finally, Mark Fossie symbolizes male chauvinism that is in decline, and this suggests that the institution of marriage cannot be used as an instrument to confine women for their convenience. The female characters in The Things They Carried can be classified into three theme-based groups. The first group consisting of Martha and Sally Gustafson characterizes the conventional love interests of the soldiers. Martha is inspirational for Jimmy Cross, but she never knows that she serves such a purpose in JimmyÃ¢â¬â¢s life. She writes him letters, and gives him pictures, and sends him a pebble for a good luck, but never intends to be JimmyÃ¢â¬â¢s romantic interest or his girl waiting at home for him. By the time of Ted LavenderÃ¢â¬â¢s death Jimmy knows that none of her letters has a romantic idea to them and that the pebble is nothing more than a good luck charm. She never mentions about the war in her letters to Jimmy. In a way, MarthaÃ¢â¬â¢s character shows lack of empathy towards Jimmy, who is amidst a war. It is explained by the narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s reasoning of CrossÃ¢â¬â¢ feelings as he states, Ã¢â¬Å"In those burned letter Martha never mentioned the war, except to say, Jimmy take care of yourself. She wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t involved. She signed the letters Love, but it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t love, and all the fine lies and technicalities did not matterÃ¢â¬ (OÃ¢â¬â¢Brien 24). Women like Martha feel sympathetic towards Jimmy, but they cannot understand what the soldiers are going through. This is could be attributed to the reason that conventionally women do not serve a major in wars except serving as medical nurses. Norman Bowker assumes that Sally would not be interested in hearing stories about Vietnam given her dislike of profanity. The profanity, blood, and gore in Rat KileyÃ¢â¬â¢s letter to Curt LemonÃ¢â¬â¢s sister would have had the same effect. She could not have been able to empathize with Rat Kiley, and help him find solace by replying to his letter. The woman, who retorts to the story of the baby buffalo being tortured by Rat Kiley with disgust and shame, fails to understand the nature of war and its effect on people. All these women conform to the conventional notions and reservations regarding the roles of women in society, especially that women cannot serve in combat. The second group of female characters consists of only Mary-Anne. She characterizes the liberated and confident pool of 21st century modern women. Mary-AnneÃ¢â¬â¢s appearance resembles the first group of female characters: Ã¢â¬Å"A tall, big-boned blonde. At best, Rat said, she was seventeen years old, fresh out of Cleveland Heights Senior High. She had long white legs and blue eyes and a complexion like strawberry ice cream. Very friendly, too. (OÃ¢â¬â¢Brien 93). However, she is transformed after coming Vietnam into a self-aware, confident, and independent woman and this gives a sense of competition to other men. This is well depicted when Fossie and Rat Kiley are left without words when they meet Mary-Anne after six days, as she tells them, You're in a place [Ã¢â¬ ¦] where you don't belongÃ¢â¬ ¦. You just don't know,[Ã¢â¬ ¦] You hide in this little fortress, behind wire and sandbags, and you don't know what it's all aboutÃ¢â¬ ¦I get scared sometimesÃ¢â¬âlots of timesÃ¢â¬âbut it's not bad. You know? I feel close to myself. When I'm out there at night, I eel close to my own body, I can feel my blood moving, my skin and my fingernails, everything, it's like I'm full of electricity and I'm glowing in the darkÃ¢â¬âI'm on fire almostÃ¢â¬âI'm burning away into nothingÃ¢â¬âbut it doesn't matter because I know exactly who I am. You can't feel like that anywhere else (OÃ¢â¬â¢Brien 111). This passage captures the real essence of Mary-AnneÃ¢â¬â¢s transformation, distinguishes her from other female characters, and shows that she has more virility than even the men in the war. Hereby, OÃ¢â¬â¢Brien disapproves the notion that women are better suited for non-combat roles in war. Mary-Anne unlike the female characters of Martha, Sally Gustafson, and Curt LemonÃ¢â¬â¢s sister who are either unaware or turn a blind eye towards the war, finds it very self-satisfying. Ã¢â¬Å"Sometimes I want to eat this place. Vietnam. I want to swallow the whole countryÃ¢â¬âthe dirt, the deathÃ¢â¬âI just want to eat it and have it there inside me. That's how I feel. It's like . . . this appetite,Ã¢â¬ OÃ¢â¬â¢BrienÃ¢â¬â¢s choice of words in this excerpt symbolizes that for Mary-Anne Vietnam has a stabilizing effect, and the way she wants to calm her inner chaos is by consuming (experiencing) everything that Vietnam has to offer. A contrasting character to Mary-Anne in this aspect is Rat Kiley, as he shoots his own foot in order to escape combat in Vietnam. Even the Green Berets, who are considered the most virile and badass soldiers in Vietnam are humbled by Mary-AnneÃ¢â¬â¢s courage: Ã¢â¬Å"There were times, apparently, when she took crazy, seath-wish chances-things that even the Greenies balked atÃ¢â¬ (OÃ¢â¬â¢Brien 115). Mary-Anne reminds me of another woman from the books of history who shares the same courageous traits as her, and led the men and a whole nation to victory; that is Joan DÃ¢â¬â¢Arc. Hereby, it is not surprising that liberty and the nationhood of France are personified as woman, the Statue of Liberty and Marianne, respectively. The third and the last group of women consist of Linda; she signifies how pure love can inspire and transform a personÃ¢â¬â¢s life. The relationship between Tim and Linda is the most optimistic one amongst all the relationships. Irrespective of his age at the time of his short-lived childhood romance with Linda, the relationship has a long lasting effect on him. Even though they did not get to spend a great deal of time together OÃ¢â¬â¢Brien dreams imaginary meetings with Linda in his sleep that rekindle and keep his feelings alive. The real moments shared with Linda and her memories are kept alive by his subconscious mind as it creates the imaginative dreams about her, which alleviate the pain of her death and the fact that she is no more around him. This idea is well conveyed in the last chapter when OÃ¢â¬â¢Brien says, I'm forty-three years old, and a writer now, still dreaming Linda alive in exactly the same way. She's not the embodied Linda; she's mostly made up, with a new identity and a new name, like the man who never was. Her real name doesn't matter. She was nine years old. I loved her and then she died. And yet right here, in the spell of memory and imagination, I can still see her as if through ice, as if I'm gazing into some other world, a place where there are no brain tumors and no funeral homes, where there are no bodies at all (OÃ¢â¬â¢Brien 245). Tim OÃ¢â¬â¢Brien writes about his experiences in Vietnam in order to keep those memories alive and preserve them in his stories. He discovers that storytelling has a healing effect on him, when he mentions, Ã¢â¬Å"Yet when I received Norman Bowker's letter, it occurred to me that the act of writing had led me through a swirl of memories that might otherwise have ended in paralysis or worseÃ¢â¬ (OÃ¢â¬â¢Brien 158). He ends the book with an exemplifying statement about storytelling, by saying, Ã¢â¬Å"I realize it as Tim trying to save TimmyÃ¢â¬â¢s life with a storyÃ¢â¬ (OÃ¢â¬â¢Brien 246). The different and distinct roles of women in Tim OÃ¢â¬â¢BrienÃ¢â¬â¢s The Things They Carried portray the conflict of expectations, individualism, and freedom between men and women. It is difficult to label The Things They Carried as a work on Vietnam War or plainly a collection of love stories. But it is certain that the book captures the changes and conflicts in the nature of relationship between men and women in terms of boundaries, space, independence and individualism. I can relate to the male characters of The Things they Carried, as like them I too have experienced my feelings of love transform into jealousy, possessiveness, and insecurity, leading to similar changes and conflicts. Being left desolate and in despair helped me to transform the failure into strength to carry on and become a better person. This strength has instilled in me empathy, which has enabled me to understand my female counterparts better and respect them even more. Work Cited O'Brien, Tim. The Things They Carried: a Work of Fiction. New York: Broadway, 1998. Print. Shelly, Percy B. One Word Is Too Often Profaned by Percy Bysshe Shelley. The Literature Network: Online Classic Literature, Poems, and Quotes. Essays ; Summaries. Web. 13 May 2011. ;http://www. online-literature. com/shelley_percy/671/;.
Saturday, November 9, 2019
Explain the economic and political causes underlying the Salem witch Trials? The causes underlying the Salem witch trials has a lot to do with religious practices during the late 17th century. These cases were proven however not to be Just based on religion. Though the church was the power of the state the act of treason and the striping of due process concluded these trials could have been for money and property. When an accused was executed, sometimes that person's property was given to the state. Another possible underlying cause would be out of spite, or the slaking of someone.For example an accuser may accuse someone her or she does not Like and they could be executed. It could have started out of religious purposes however it seemed to be more of personal issues. Analyze the role that reverend Paris played In the Salem witch trials? The Role of reverend Paris played was quite Interesting and quite suspicious. Paris served as a justice during the trials but there's a catch. Two of the allegedly Ã¢â¬Å"possessedÃ¢â¬ girls were related to him. One being his daughter and another who was his niece. Paris was also responsible for Ã¢â¬Å"breaking TubaÃ¢â¬ .Otherwise known as questioning until the truth is revealed, Paris struck Tuba with hard questions until she confessed. Whether her confession was true or not, Is not known but Reverend Par's' roll Is quite skeptical to me. Evaluate the Significance of who was accused of witchcraft and who the accusers were? Well right off the back people being accused were the Native Americans and slaves. The Native Americans were already believed to be Ã¢â¬Å"employeesÃ¢â¬ of the devil. Some people living in Salem even claimed the woods of the new world was the devil's home. Slaves and Native Americans were not the only ones. W class colleens and people who seemed to be the poorest were being put on trial. These accused were being put on trial by the Upper-class and even farmers were sometimes accusing the poor. Brai nstorm and Discuss more recent events that you might label as witch-hunts? Something that I believe is a recent event that could be labeled, as Witch craft would be something about exorcisms and possessions. People, are claiming abnormalities from ghosts or lost ones just as the girls were In the Salem trials. However these cases are not usually brought to court. Instead they are made into TV shows, and OFF for ghosts.In some ways the Salem witch trials and Ghost hunters are very similar. Both are all claims and technology was and is not advanced enough to detect spirits or contact with the devil. Another event I think could be labeled as Ã¢â¬Å"witch huntsÃ¢â¬ would be the search of information on the illuminant. A group of people who are believed to worship satanic figures Just like the witches. Debate the use of spectral evidence and Tuba's confession in the trials. What would a modern court do with such evidence? Spectral evidence is a form of evidence based upon dreams and v isions.It was admitted into court during the Salem witch trials by the appointed chief Justice, William Sought. The definition Justifies the use right there, it is invalid and should not be used. This was evidence only the accuser could provide, being dreams, visions, sounds, and other strange things along those lines is not valid or factual enough to prove someone's innocence. Tuba's confession in my opinion could not have been Justified as truthful. Firstly she was from Barbados and though she may have been participating in witch like activities is does not mean she cursed the kids.Secondly she may have Just have confessed to get it over with because the community believed in forgiveness. If spectral evidence was used in court today it would probably be laughed at and the person claiming these visions or whatever would probably be placed in a clinic. Discuss how the witch trials came to an end in Salem and what their consequences were. In your view, were matters resolved fairly? T he witch trials came to an end with a realization, that perhaps the accusers were not telling the truth. In 1693 Tuba was proven guilty and sold into slavery.Over 200 people were accused and 55 were executed, survival usually came from a confession. After realizing the courts were wrong, in 1697 a pubic fasting took place, and in 1702 John Hale gave a powerful apology statement. It wouldn't be 300 yeas later until the last case was reversed. In my opinion matters were probably as solved as fairly as possible. How I see it was this whole case to our society seems crazy and we think of these accusers and Judges Just as crazy. During the 17th century though, witchcraft was thought to be so real that the inhabitants of a lusciously based community really had no choice but to believe.Mistakes were made ? Old say yes, but what needs to be looked into is those who were accused out of personal reasons for that was unfair treatment and people were losing loved ones over a claim, Justice was not served fairly then. How and why have different political and social groups competed for influence over society and government in what would become the united states? Well our country was Just on its start. In my opinion these groups competed because purpose. That purpose is to live in and make a perfect society, whether it is through elision, law, government or another practice the goal is all the same to live happy.Take a look at the 18th century in order to understand this competition more. Liberalizes, Nationalists, and Conservatives, all competing against each other to form that golden society. Liberalizes wanted equality and liberty, generally speaking civil rights and freedom. Nationalists this involves individual identifying with a nation, very similar to Patriotism. Conservatives was basing culture aspects based on western civilizations. You see all three want what's best but Just believe and have different opinions how to do it.How have Americans agreed or Argued over t he Values that guide the political system as well as who is part of the political process? Many Americans believe today's system is unjust and unfair. Americans have argued over the political system and schemes for years. It seems like the government always has something up its sleeve and its people know that. Like the Salem witch trials, and many other cases family members and friends were working on cases involving loved ones. This didn't make sense and people argued over that. How much say a person has, the penalties, who and when to speak has all been argued about until a solution was thought of.The agreeing and Arguing is what essentially shaped the political system into something more fair. How and why have changes in moral, philosophical and cultural values affected US history? Change, comes through one thing experience, and experience can come from mistakes or well doings. These values have all been tested up until now by trial and error. Starting with moral values take a lo ok at punishments for crime. The electric chair and hangings was a way of being punished for a crime, but with research and discovery these methods were found painful and unethical and charges have now differed.Philosophical values are along the lines of pollution. People have been polluting for centuries and it is now Just taking a toll on our environment and change is being made. Lastly cultural is more along the lines with lets say helping other countries, a few hundred years ago why would we do that? The world is ours, but we have realized we all need each other if we want to survive and live peacefully. So how has this affected United States history, well its simple change in values is what shaped our country today.. Each time a change happens, the previous thing being changed will no longer happen in history again.
Thursday, November 7, 2019
Walter Gropius, Short Profile of the Bauhaus Designer German architect Walter Gropius (born May 18, 1883, in Berlin) helped launch modern architecture in the 20th century when he was asked by the German government to run a new school, the Bauhaus in Weimar in 1919. As an art educator, Gropius soon defined the Bauhaus school of design with his 1923 Idee und Aufbau des staatlichen Bauhauses Weimar (Idea and Structure of the Weimar State Bauhaus), which continues to influence architecture and the applied arts. The vision of the Bauhaus school has permeated world architecture- wildly influential writes Charly Wilder for The New York Times. She says itÃ¢â¬â¢s difficult today to find some corner of design, architecture or the arts that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t bear its traces. The tubular chair, the glass-and-steel office tower, the clean uniformity of contemporary graphic design- so much of what we associate with the word modernism- has roots in a small German art school that existed for only 14 years. Bauhaus Roots, Deutsche Werkbund Walter Adolph Gropius was educated at the Technical Universities in MÃ ¼nich and Berlin. Early on, Gropius experimented with the combination of technology and art, building walls with glass blocks, and creating interiors without visible supports. His architectural reputation was first established when, while working with Adolph Meyer, he designed the Fagus Works in Alfred an der Leine, Germany (1910-1911) and a model factory and office building for the first Werkbund Exhibition in Cologne (1914). The Deutsche Werkbund or German Work Federation was a state-sponsored organization of industrialists, artists, and craftsmen. Established in 1907, the Werkbund was the German fusion of the English Arts Crafts Movement with American industrialism, with the intent of making Germany competitive in an increasingly industrialized world. After World War I (1914-1918), the Werkbund ideals were subsumed into Bauhaus ideals. The word bauhaus is German, basically meaning to build (bauen) a house (haus). Staatliches Bauhaus, as the movement is sometimes called. brings to light that it was in the interest of the state or government of Germany to combine all aspects of architecture into a Gesamtkunstwerk, or complete work of art. For Germans, this was not a new idea- Bavarian stucco masters of theÃ Wessobrunner School in the 17th and 18th centuries also approached building as a total work of art. Bauhaus According to Gropius Walter Gropius believed that all design should be functional as well as aesthetically pleasing. His Bauhaus school pioneered a functional, severely simple architectural style, featuring the elimination of surface decoration and extensive use of glass. Perhaps more importantly, Bauhaus was an integration of the arts- that architecture should be studied along with other arts (e.g., painting) and crafts (e.g., furniture making). His artists statement was set forth in the Manifesto of April 1919: Let us strive for, conceive and create the new building of the future that will unite every discipline, architecture and sculpture and painting, and which will one day rise heavenwards from the million hands of craftsmen as a clear symbol of a new belief to come. The Bauhaus School attracted many artists, including painters Paul Klee and Wassily Kandinsky, graphic artist Kthe Kollwitz, and expressionist art groups such as Die BrÃ ¼cke and Der Blaue Reiter.Ã Marcel Breuer studied furniture making with Gropius and then led the carpentry workshop at the Bauhaus School in Dessau, Germany.Ã By 1927 Gropius had brought in Swiss architect Hannes Meyer to lead the architecture department. Funded by the German State, the Bauhaus School was always subject to political posturing. By 1925 the institution found more space and stability by relocating fromÃ Weimar toÃ Dessau, the site of the iconic glassÃ Bauhaus Building Gropius designed. By 1928, having directed the school since 1919, Gropius handed in his resignation. British architect and historian Kenneth Frampton suggests this reason: The relative maturity of the institution, the unremitting attacks on himself and the growth of his practice all convinced him that it was time for a change. When Gropius resigned from the Bauhaus School in 1928, Hannes Meyer was appointed Director. A few years later, architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe became the director until the schools closing in 1933- and the rise of Adolf Hitler. Walter Gropius opposed the Nazi regime and left Germany secretly in 1934. After several years in England, the German educator began teaching architecture at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts. As a Harvard professor, Gropius introduced Bauhaus concepts and design principles- teamwork, craftsmanship, standardization, and prefabrication- to a generation of American architects. In 1938, Gropius designed his own house, now open to the public, in nearby Lincoln, Massachusetts. Between 1938 to 1941, Gropius worked on several houses with Marcel Breuer, who had also immigrated to the United States. They formed the Architects Collaborative in 1945. Among their commissions were theÃ Harvard Graduate Center,(1946), the U.S. Embassy in Athens, and the University of Baghdad. One of Gropiuss later projects, in collaboration with Pietro Belluschi, was the 1963 Pam Am Building (now the Metropolitan Life Building) in New York City, designed in an architectural style dubbed International by American architect Philip Johnson (1906-2005). Ã Gropius died in Boston, Massachusetts on July 5, 1969. He is buried in Brandenburg, Germany. Learn More The Bauhaus, 1919Ã¢â¬â1933, The Metropolitan Museum of ArtA Bauhaus Life: Is Bauhaus Too International for America?The New Architecture and the Bauhaus by Walter Gropius, trans. P. Morton Shand, MIT PressWalter Gropius by Siegfried Giedion, Dover, 1992Gropius by Gilbert Lupfer and Paul Sigel, Taschen Basic Architecture, 2005Gropius: An Illustrated Biography of the Creator of the Bauhaus by Reginald Isaacs, 1992From Bauhaus to Our House by Tom Wolfe, 1981 Sources Kenneth Frampton, Modern Architecture (3rd ed., 1992).Charly Wilderaug, On the Bauhaus Trail in Germany, The New York Times, August 10, 2016.
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
Ethical Values Essay Sample Essay on Moral Values and Ethics Valuing the life, safety, and the presence of other person is important because it means that you are respecting ethical values of every person, animal, or a property in any way. This is a practice that allows an individual to consider their values to be always respected to preserve their dignity and integrity at all times. The essence of value is important to ensure that there are no rights that are violated because every organism or material in our society deserves to be respected and protected. Associating ethical values to a person beliefs and actions would mean that it enhances the discipline of a person by portraying a role model to other groups regarding their respective behavior. This is a way to improve how we treat and respect each other to prevent conflicting interest. One of the major ethical values is to do better or provide something beneficial to the interest of other individuals. This can be applied by allowing other individuals to experience safety that they must have to adhere with their personal or professional affairs. The principle of beneficence such as doing something that benefits others individuals are an important ethical value that can be applied to other individuals. This is to ensure that their needs are always addressed and their safety is secured by anyone who wants to prevent any stress, hazards, and risks. The ethical value of respecting the law is an important structure that should be followed by every individual in our community. The reason behind is that following the policies and rules that prevent anyone from being apprehended such as violations might risk the rights and safety of other individuals or groups. The principle of veracity is an important ethical value because it corresponds to the application of truth. This is because each individual has the right to know the truth, especially if it involves their personal space. The truth reveals an actual scenario that displays a realistic view of acknowledging something that is important to a personÃ¢â¬â¢s dignity. Equality succeeds an ethical value because it responds to a fair treatment of a person, group, or an organization towards something that is important to their practice and belief. Every person has the right to be treated fairly as a way to generate a diverse cultural and social environment to prevent ethical and legal consequences by the authorities. Respecting the personÃ¢â¬â¢s demographic status such as with regard to their age, race, sexual orientation, gender, and social classification is a clear example on how the society should maximize the role of equality and equity at all times. Valuing ethics is a social responsibility for every individual or group because it corresponds to the law and policies that should be always respected in any way possible. If the value of ethics is violated due to the infliction of harm towards other individuals, this means that there is a threat of life or injury. Damage to properties is one example on how ethics is violated because it creates an unpleasant consequence to the environment of the owner. This is why there are law enforcement agencies that are always on alert for any violations committed by a person or group towards others. This is to ensure that the quality of life is always respected as well as the sanctity of their existence is preserved through the application of the law at all times (Freemont Kitney, 2012). Reference Freemont, P. F. Kitney, R. I. (2012).Ã Synthetic Biology. New Jersey:Ã World Scientific.Ã ISBNÃ 978-1-84816-862-6.
Saturday, November 2, 2019
GATTACA film - Essay Example Specifically, Socrates writes the following: [H]e who has experience of the manner in which we order justice and administer the State, and still remains, has entered into an implied contract that he will do as we command him. He claims that those who do not obey commands are unjust because they have accepted parental training and education from the state. If they fail to convince the state otherwise, disobedience itself is a kind of crime against the state. Taking this definition on its surface, the character of Vincent Anton Freeman in GATTACA can be shown to violate his contract with the state by trying to rise above his genetically prescribed circumstances. There are many different examples available to show that Vincent refuses to accept his lot in the society of GATTACA. Three such examples will be shown here. First, from his early childhood, Vincent competes against his brother Anton in swimming contests. They swim out to sea and see which one gives up first and swims back. In these early contests, Vincent loses to his brother due to his brotherÃ¢â¬â¢s superior genetic make-up. However, he continues trying to beat his brother rather than accepting this outcome. In the end, he learns to beat his brother by using all his strength to swim out, not saving anything for the swim back. In this example, he learns that his will can overcome his genetic destiny. Exercising this, he violates his supposed understanding with the state. Second, Vincent decides he wants to become an elite astronaut. In this choice, he also violates his implied contract, which should require him to accept a menial job not afforded those without superior genetics. In the mere decision to attempt to become more than is available to him, Vincent goes against the deterministic direction the state tells him he should accept. While one could make the argument that by attempting to leave earth and go to the stars, Vincent is in fact Ã¢â¬Å"leavingÃ¢â¬ the state, the fact that he uses state space programs in order to achieve his dreams of becoming more indicates that he has accepted the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s material conditions without accepting its moral dictates. Third, and finally, the fact that Vincent uses deception to achieve his dream of becoming an astronaut shows that he violates his contract. He steals DNA from a person with a Ã¢â¬Å"superiorÃ¢â¬ profile and uses this to impersonate a different identity. He even undergoes surgery to make himself taller, so that he wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be detected. In doing this, he shows that, on one hand, he is willing to live within the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s expectations, but on the other he does not accept its ultimate ordering of justice. He deceives the state while accepting the benefits that it affords him as he lives under that deception. GATTACA, in the end, poses questions about the justice of a state that is formed on genetic determinism. However, it is also an example of a citizen acting within such a state in a way that is, contrac tually speaking, unjust. By using the state for his own private ends, Vincent can be said to be unjust, in view of SocratesÃ¢â¬â¢ definition. The fact that we pull for him forces us to ask questions about this social contract and about the nature of justice generally. Second Prompt In her poem, Ã¢â¬Å"EthicsÃ¢â¬ Linda Pastan defines a situation in which a person must choose between saving a classic painting and another, older human being. She considers this question in light