Thursday, October 31, 2019

Ethics JournalJournal Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Ethics JournalJournal - Assignment Example In this case, taking care of the patient is the right thing to do. In the above situation, intentions are important in a moral life because actions are not just based on their outcomes but on the intentions. In this case, the intention of the nurse is to make the patient comfortable and treat him equally like any other human being. Although the patient will eventually die, the nurse has a duty to treat the patient without focusing on the final outcome. Therefore, intention is what guides action, not the consequence. Treating a person with respect involves recognizing his value as a human being, and treating him with a high degree of politeness and courtesy. It involves restraining from any conduct or actions that could either degrade or harm the person (Rich & Butts, 2013). This also involves respecting the ability of a person to make independent decisions about himself and his life. However, a person may not be treated with respect for purposes of restoring order and justice. This may also be done in order to punish the individual for wrongs committed. A person may not be treated with respect if there is the need to discipline such a person. Rich, K., & Butts, J. (2013). Foundations of Ethical Nursing Practice. In K. Masters,  Role Development In Professional Nursing Practice  (3rd ed., pp. 105-123). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Lesson Plans Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Lesson Plans - Essay Example In the grade two lesion plan, there has to the overall time and the time spread out to give room for various activities involved in the teaching process. Nevertheless, the paper is aimed at deriving a lesson plan that will enable the students to achieve their learning objective in a physics class. 1 hour will be for interaction between the students and the lecturer on the subject (matter) giving examples of matter. This would equip the lecture with better perception of where the lecturer should start from in the next lesson. Students at this level will dwell more on the similarities and differences that tend to exist amongst the state of non- living matter. The comparison in this case will be in relation to their chemical and molecular structures. 1. To enable all students to actively participate in the class through question- answer engagement. Trying to ask them to present and answer some of the questions related to non- living matter or some related scientific concepts. The lesson will be based on liquid state of matter. However, after the definitive introduction, the lecturer should clarify on how the various characteristics of liquids depend on the molecular components. Students at this level will dwell more on the similarities and differences that tend to exist amongst the state of liquids. The comparison in this case will be in relation to their chemical and molecular structures. The lesson plan is based on non living matter. In physics students should be aware that non living matter is divided into three states namely liquid, solid and gaseous states. Considering the current state of the economy we realize that most of the industrial products, tools and equipments are derived from the study of physics for instance in the manufacturing sector (Patton, 2008, p. 129). In accordance with the lesson plan, the students are supposed to have not only the basic information on non living matter but also be able to

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Developing Equality and Transparency

Developing Equality and Transparency Platon School Model United Nations 2014 | 7th –9th March 2014 Forum: Special Political Decolonisation Committee Issue: Promoting good governance and democracy through transparency and equality Student Officer: Anastasios Kardamakis Position: Chair PERSONAL INTRODUCTION Esteemed Delegates, My name is Anastasis Kardamakis and it is an honour to serve as a chairman in the fore coming 4th PS Model United Nations Conference. I am 16 years old and I am currently a student of the second class of the Arsakeio High School of Patras. hope that you will all take particular interest in the issues of the Political committee since they are crucial and affect us today. I would like to endorse personal research on the multiple aspects of the issues and come prepared to the conference acknowledging your countries’ policies as well as current affairs. My final advice will be to come up with creative solutions and have a strong will for participation in all procedures. INTRODUCING TOPIC â€Å"Addressing todays inter-linked challenges requires sound,  forward-looking public policies and transparent, accountable governance  structures that embody solidarity with the poorest and most vulnerable Secretary General Ban Ki-moon â€Å"Gender equality is more than a goal in itself. It is a precondition for meeting the challenge of reducing poverty, promoting sustainable development and building good governance.† Former Secretary General Kofi Annan   The dawn of the 21st century has been marked by the unlimited access to information and international efforts aiming at the protection of human rights and equality of all forms. Both the aforementioned social trends are key aspects of the universally recognized ideal of democracy as well as the so called good governance in the community of nations. Therefore, it is the duty of every national government and a responsibility of the United Nations system to ensure that every governmental activity is transparent and every group has equal rights with the others regardless of their origin, religious beliefs, social status, sex, educational and financial background as ways to promote democracy and good governance. DEFINITION OF KEY-TERMS Governance: the activity of governing a country (Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary). Governance is considered  «good to the degree in which a countrys institutions and processes are transparent. Democracy: a system of government in which all the people of a country can vote to elect their representatives (Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary) Transparency: the fact of being transparent (Longman dictionary of contemporary English). In the context of the state â€Å"transparency† means that the citizens are aware of the plans and actions of the government and its institutions. Equality: the fact of being equal in rights, status, advantages etc ( Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary).The equality forms that are associated with the issue are gender,political,religious,racial and legal ones. HISTORICAL AND BACKGROUND INFORMATION Good democratic governance and Equality â€Å"In a democracy there is, first that most splendid of virtues, equality before the Law† Herodotus, ancient Greek historian Equality is a key aspect of democracy and good governance. When the mob revolted in France in 1789, among others, they demanded equal status of all the citizens before the law and human rights .The female movements all over Europe and America in the 19th and 20th centuries called for gender equality and the African people rose their arms against the western colonizers because the wanted to gain their independence and bring an end to the discrimination owing to their origin. These examples from human history confirm how important gender, social, racial and legal equality is for the progress of humanity and the promotion of democratic reforms. When all the citizens of a nation are equal, then all the opinions on collective matters can be heard and therefore the purpose of pluralism is served. Many conventions have been signed and ratified by States aiming at the maintenance of equal rights such as but not limited to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination again st Women (CEDAW),the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action, International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD) and the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights. Those treaties protect and cordially endorse the aforementioned forms of equality. When women are empowered and able to vote and work, foreign nationals are not afraid to practice their cultural and religious beliefs in public. Everyone is subject to the same laws and their personal freedom is ensured, then the states are able to achieve sustainable development, the economy flourishes and the ties between the members of a society are tight. In essence, these are the characteristics of good governance. So it is apparent to anyone that strengthening equality of every form is a solid way to promote good governance and democracy. Good democratic governance and transparency â€Å"Information is the currency of democracy† Thomas Jefferson, 3rd US President According to the United Nations, democracy and good governance must be characterized by transparency. Transparency and more specifically social transparency is the cornerstone of democratic governance as it enables citizens everywhere to hold institutions and governments accountable for their policies and performance. It is based on a combination of politics and ethics in which the interests and needs are focused in the citizen. When the citizens are fully aware of the implementation of national policies, the work of institutions and the actions of their elected governments, there is trust and better cooperation between individuals and the authorities, the public sector is free of corruption and bribery and the right of every person to know the way his government acts is not being abused. The new technologies allow the continuous flow of information regarding a country’s policies and as a result everyone can be informed about the latest updates. In other words, transparency pr ovides â€Å"a universal rationale for the provision of good records management systems, archives, and financial regulatory and monitoring systems† whilst fighting corruption which hinders the right of knowledge of the society. Last but not least it has to be mentioned that the large movement toward transparency dates back only in 1990s when international organizations such the UN,IMF ( International Monetary Fund) and the World Bank wanted to see democratic practices and stable political Leadership in various Member States. TIMELINE OF IMPORTANT INCIDENTS Events related to equality 1787: United States constitution was the first to include equality before God and Law as the Founding fathers realised that this was a way to promote democracy in the newly founded State. However, this was a premature statement because it lacked basic forms of equality such as racial and gender one and it would take many years to develop as a constitutional idea. 1789: This year the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen was signed. Its first article reads â€Å"Men are born and remain free and equal in rights† .This declaration was the foundation of the brief French Republic. Neither the French nor the American revolutions and their philosophical foundations however led to full gender or political equality. It would take many years of revolutions, feminist and anti-discrimination movements as well as wars until equality became a basic concept of legislation. 1948: The United Nations General Assembly adopts the Universal declaration of Human Rights. Its first article reads â€Å"All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights†. This phrase is not just important because it stated that any form of discrimination towards an individual is outlaw. It also promoted democracy as most constitutions today include it as their first clause. Many Member States of the UN have signed acts or treaties so as to end inequality. One example is the United Kingdom which in 2010 implemented Equality Act 2010 that aimed at reducing socio-economic inequalities, reforming and harmonising equality law and eradicating differences in pay between male and female employees. Events related to transparency Some extent of transparency existed in the Athenian democracy where there was a system of civilian oversight of public funds and the wealth and incomes of all public figures (including generals), so that they did not benefit from their public positions. In the 18th and 19th centuries with a rise in representative government accountability and transparency became much broader in scope. The U.S. Constitution required the legislative and executive branches to publish laws, regulations, and proceedings. Most western countries though began to adopt domestic legislation for accountability and transparency in the 1950s.In addition to that the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) has adopted standards and proposes model legislation to govern institutions, such as corporations, nonprofit organizations, and trade unions. The United Kingdom has also enacted comprehensive freedom of information legislation for the public sector. In 1996, the IMF stressed the importance of promoting good governance in all its aspects, including by ensuring the rule of law, improving the efficiency and accountability of the public sector, and tackling corruption, as essential elements of a framework within which economies can prosper. Finally, in 2003 the United Nations adopted the United Nations Convention against corruption (UNCAC) which proposed mechanisms to combat corruption. MAJOR PARTIES INVOLVED IN THE ISSUE Organisations and agencies United Nations: Through the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Democracy Fund (UNDEF), the Department of Political Affairs (DPA) and the Office of the High Commissioner for the Human Rights (OHCHR), promote human rights, the rule of law, and women’s participation in political life to ensure the access to information by strengthening legislation and media capacities. In particular, the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) has adopted the resolution A/RES/55/96 which promotes and consolidates democracy. Moreover in 2007 the UN adopted resolution A/RES/61/245 making the organization more transparent. Countries This issue is general and therefore affects all countries both those which need a political transition to democracy and those which are in need of democratic reforms. Countries with non democratic systems: In this category belong states with authoritarian regimes, monarchic, communistic or theocratic ones. In order to exemplify, some of these countries are DPR Korea, the Syrian Arab Republic, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia ,the Peoples’ Republic of China ,Kazakhstan and the Islamic Republic of Iran. Because of their political system freedom of expression and participation in democratic procedures do not exist. There is no transparency or equality, even legal or gender one which have been deemed fundamental nowadays. United Nations statistics show that in these Member States high levels of corruption especially among high officials and poverty problems have not been eradicated. Democratic Nations: The majority of the modern states fall into this category. However, there is always the prospect of reforms so as to ensure that all governmental actions are transparent and the human rights in terms of equality are not violated. This is because many cases of suspicious illegal governmental actions have been reported among with human rights abuse ones. States have to realize that so as for them to savour the benefits of good governance, fundamental human rights must be respected. POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS All delegates are highly encouraged to find their own solutions to this issue after taking into consideration their countries policies. This study guide is purely to help them gain an insight into this political topic but some realistic and possible solutions would be that all Member States ,despite their different views about politics, engage in negotiations for better equality of their citizens and also agree on the establishment of an independent UN agency under the Secretary General whose main responsibility will be to promote transparency by encouraging and consulting governments to publish their decisions on line and in newspapers as well as combat corruption and bribery because both actions undermine good governance. Also, each Member State can open a national-level dialogue with individuals in order to increase participation of all national groups to governance and become more transparent. Finally, Non-Governmental organizations such as Transparency International and Human Ri ghts Watch can assist the Member States’ work by organizing educational campaigns and reporting any case of corruption, lack of accountability and inequality to the United Nations and its relevant agencies. BIBLIOGRAPHY AFRICAN CHARTER ON DEMOCRACY, ELECTIONS AND GOVERNANCE 28 Dec. 2013 Democracy Web 28 Dec.2013 UN adopted resolution A/RES/61/245 28 Dec. 2013 United Nations cyberschoolbus 28 Dec. 2013 United Nations global issues /governance 28 Dec. 2013 United Nations global issues/ democracy 28 Dec. 2013 Wikipedia / Equality Act 2010 28 Dec.2013 Multimedia resources

Friday, October 25, 2019

The Odyssey :: essays research papers

During the night Odysseus tosses and turns, worrying about the outcome of his encounter with the suitor. Athena appears to himin a dream and promises that he will aid in the struggle. Penelope also unable to sleep and prays to Artemis, begging that she be rescued from marriage to another man, even if it means her death. In the morning Odysseus appeals to Zeus for a sign of his favor and is answered by the rumbling of thunder and lightning. Others notice the sign and a general mood of imminant danger sets in. Odysseus observes the behavior of his servants to identify the faithful. Melanthius arrives with the goats for the banquet and persists in harasses Odysseus. Eumaeus comes to the place, driving the hogs for the slaughter, demonstrating his goodness. Another loyal servant, Philoetius, the chief cowherd, arrives from the mainland. The suitors, again plotting to assassinate Telemachus, eventually return to the place. As they lunch, Ctesippus insults Odysseus and throws a bone at him. Telemachus is outraged and gives a scolding to the suitors in which he lists all the bad stuff they have done.. His unexpected boldness shocks the group, but they are drunk and laugh at his warnings. , Theclymenus cautions them that a catastrophe is impending in which they will suffer for their evil ways, but they mock the him until he leaves the palace in a rage. The suitors continue to drink, and dont heed the warning. New Charters: Philoitios - the cattle foreman Vocabulary banter v. - to speak to or address in a witty and teasing manner. lustrous adj. - radiant in character or reputation. dregs n. - the most undesirable part stint n. - a definite quantity of work assigned coverlets n. - bedspread saunter v. - to walk about in an idle or leisurely manner hulking adj. - massive sardonic adj. - disdainfully or skeptically humorous : derisively mocking jeered v. - to speak or cry out with derision or mockery braying v. - to crush or grind fine Epic Conventions Epic Similies p. 411 - line 14 â€Å"as a bitch mounting over her weak, defenseless puppies growls, facing a stranger, bristling for a showdown- so he growled from his depths, hackles rising at their outrage.† p.411 - 28 â€Å"as a cook before some white-hot blazing fire who rolls his sizzling saussage back and fourth, packed with fatand blood- keen to broil it quickly, tossing, turning it, this was, that way- so he cast about† Supernatural Involvment In this book the gods are constantly involved. Once, when Athena visits Odyssues in a dream to tell him that she favors him. A second time, when they pray to Zeus

Thursday, October 24, 2019

CW Introduction

The founder of Lid was by a man named Dieter Schwartz who currently has a net worth of around $15. 2 Billion he got that success from being the founder of Lid. He is the CEO and chairman of the company and Dieter is also the CEO of the hyper market Kaufmann. The company Lid has been around for many years and they were founded in the year 1 930 when the company was founded in Germany. The first ever Lid store was opened in the year 1973 and the store started to gain a lot of consumers by the sass's.Lid then decided to branch their stores outside of Germany and as of now the store can be found in nearly every country in Europe. Lid loves to sell top quality products and sell them for the lowest prices available. The first ever UK store of Lid was established in 1 994 and they are still growing in the UK and more than 600 stores. 1 An evaluation of the strategic position of the company (500 – 600 words*) There are many different ways that Lid are trying to keep their strategic po sition of the company. This will include the many plans that Lid has for true plans and development.Which include plans such as there expansions? There have been reports that to maintain Lid's strategic position is by expanding the amount of stores they have and they soon want to have an empire of 1 500 stores and this will maintain their strategic position as more stores and thus this will mean more business. I will also include a SOOT analysis of Lid which show the strengths of the company and show the strengths and weakness of the company. Strengths in Lid include Has a good range of branded products and also has its own Bargain labelsThey usually build their places in deprived areas where cheap food and items are needed by that area and they sell items that suit most of peoples incomes Lid usually open on Sundays and holidays Is going to expand their store count to 1500 stores Weakness in Lid They are still pretty small compared to bigger brands There isn't many chain stores aro und Opportunity To gain a further stronghold and to expand in other countries like Africa and Asia Threats The increase in competition with Laid and other business meaning more intention for Lid Cost of all products PESTLE analysis for Lid an PESTLE analysis evaluates the following areas of Lid which include the following Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Legal and Environmental. Political – The political areas that can affect Lid are as follows the government intervening with wages and having Lid have National Minimal wages.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

High School Essay

I like to believe that everyone has their own goals and dreams they would like to accomplish. Every person’s dreams and goal differ from one another. My name is Gwendolyn Pavon, and I too, have goals and dreams that I hope to accomplish. Having a future and a good career is something I have always dreamed about. My current academic goals are to stay in school. Being in school is my main priority, and focusing on my schoolwork is important to me. I have the opportunity to be in school and receive financial help and I won’t let this opportunity pass by. I realize how hard things are getting in the real word. Careers are becoming harder to find and to keep, therefore I’m willing to get an education to get a good career. I never really had people to motivate me to stay in school until my senior year in high school. I opened up to my English teacher about a couple things, and she made me realize a lot. I remember being younger and my father telling me to say in school, but after he left I didn’t have much motivation. My English teacher always pushed me into doing my work and staying in school. It felt nice knowing she cared about me getting an education. She helped me with scholarship applications, with getting everything done to get into college and helped me out with anything I needed. College isn’t as easy as high school, but I’m honestly willing to do anything to get a degree and hopefully become a nurse one day. All the work, and waking up early will be worth it in the future. Soon I will have to get a job and save money for my own car. I’m not so sure if having a job and being in school will be so easy, but if it gets tough I will not give up. I have understood that there will be complicated times in life, but the one thing I will never do is give up. I don’t have much people to push me into doing what I want, but I push and motivate myself. I want the best things in the world, and having the best things means working hard to get them. I’m not the smartest person out there, but I know that I’m a pretty bright person. Although being in school isn’t something I like so much, I have decided to continue going. My weaknesses as a learner outweigh my strengths. I can get very distracted easily and I have trouble staying focused on a topic. I have to constantly remind myself to get back on topic. Getting  distracted interferes with my learning, but I work at it every day to try to focus on my work. The good thing is that if something really interests me, I give it my full attention. Being in school and sitting through fifty minute classes isn’t something I always enjoy but I do have days where I enjoy the classes. Focusing on my school work will be a little complicated for me, but I’m willing to put in all my effort to continue my education. Getting an education, being successful, and accomplishing my goals and dreams are really important to me. I will prove to people that I will be successful and continue getting an education.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

buy custom International Business Practices essay

buy custom International Business Practices essay Each country is often unique from other countries due to the nature of the standards observed in that particular country. In a similar fashion, international business practices are designed to create a unique environment that facilitates a country to engage in global business effectively and efficiently. Many multinational corporations target to expand their presence in the global market so as to increase their profitability. Although attempts have been made by various participants in the international business, particularly multinational corporations, to standardize international business practices, many countries have maintained their own practices. The nature of business practices undertaken by a country in relation to the international business depends on the economic environment in such a country. Nevertheless, the Word Trade Organization has been involved in the development of sound international business practices for all countries willing to engage in it. The desire by many c ountries to keep at par with the global economic trends has prompted them to consider international business practices seriously. A global company should ensure that its employees make their decisions in accordance to the fundamental principles associated with international business practices. In many multinational corporations, global business practices are aimed at communicating as well as reinforcing basic values to be observed by the members of the organization. Furthermore, companies engaged in international business may make their decisions based on the approaches preferred by the target customers such as the religious and cultural inclinations of the target market. The practices embraced by many multinational corporations are based upon critical survey and study of the target market and the prevailing contexts of certain countries. International business practices are generally made up of various categories for many countries (Grath, 2008). Various categories of international business practices include: taxation, trade organizations, exporting, commercial policies, and foreign investment. In each of the categories, there are distinct measures and practices that are meant to impose control and regulations for each member country. For instance, exporting has a broad range of activities ad regulations. Additionally, every country has a specific set of rules that govern export and import activities. Exporting has various important subs of important players in the exporting include: agents and distributors, import duties, import restrictions, and import documentation. Agents and distributors are important for the success of international business as they carry out business obligations on behalf of emigrant companies setting up operations in another country. As such, agents and distributors get legal authority from a country to carry out liaisons locally on behalf of firms abroad. On the other hand, countries may impose import restrictions in case of threats from certain imported products. Such restrictions may be in form of quotas, exorbitant import duties, moral persuasion as well as total burn on use of certain imported products (Kelly, 2008). A country may impose import duty on imported products or not. Moreover, the process of importing has to be done through presentation of valid documents such as commercial invoices by the sellers, certificate of inspection, packing list, and insurance policy as well as the bill of lading. Trade organizations, as a category of international business practice, comprise of individual corporations, companies owned by private individuals, and branches of certain business firms. The existence of corporations to be involved in international business is done after the required legislations are adhered to. Commercial codes on countries differ extensively and, therefore, a corporation needs to observe the legal requirements in its mother country so as to be legally registered to operate. Similarly, companies owned privately have to observe the required legislations on their formation and operation. On the other hand, branches for corporations abroad or within the country should be established through the required regulations of the law. Therefore, the formation and operation of various trade organizations in any country is based on the legal requirements of the country. The countrys international business practices take center stage in the formation and operation of trade organ izations. International business practices aalso encompass foreign investment and commercial policies. Each country embraces diverse commercial policies in relation to international business practices. In most cases, the central banks are involved in the setting up of commercial policies to govern and facilitate international business practices. For instance, the central banks are involved in the development of foreign currency exchange rates (Madigan, 2006). This is normally done through the maintenance of reserves of foreign currencies by the central bank to facilitate trade transactions for the people involved in trade activities. On the other hand, interest rates are set by the central banks of respective individual countries in relation to the nature of the countrys economy. Foreign investment in international business practices comprise of restrictions on investments as well as facilitation of investment processes. A country lays down certain restrictions to be observed by those interested in investing in the country. In most cases, the restrictions set by a country on foreign investment tend to be less stringent as compared to other forms of restrictions associated with business activities. In fact, foreign investors often enjoy a wide range of rights almost equally to the citizens of a country. This is especially so due to the level of significance foreign investment has on a countrys economy. Therefore, most countries often create incentives to encourage foreign investors. Taxation, as a category of international business practices, is subdivided into diverse sub-categories according to the nature of the firms involved. For instance, many countries have corporate taxes, treaty taxes as well as personal taxes. The countrys tax code is used in the calculation of the various types of taxes. From the foregoing, international business practices are generally the set of guidelines and regulations observed by individual countries in their involvement with other countries in international business. The practices are meant to create a serene environment that favors the thriving of international business so as to facilitate economic growth and development in the countries involved. By developing good international business practices, a country can reap massive benefits through its participation in international business. Buy custom International Business Practices essay

Monday, October 21, 2019

Words and Expressions You Should Stop Using

Words and Expressions You Should Stop Using Phrases You Should Never Say Again Public speaking is very common yet difficult activity. To make a good impression, you should have great communication skills. Before talking in front of a big audience during your next meeting, presentation, etc., think whether you dont resort to the annoying as well as useless verbal fits described below. Its a well-known fact that people face various difficulties connected with the oral speaking and developing effective communication skills. The most common troubles might be uttering the same word too often in a short period of time, using speech patterns that irritate the audience even without noticing or falling in love with a few expressions. If you do such mistakes that are related to public speeches, then whatever you endeavored to say will get lost. Here you can find the most widely met problems regarding this issue. Saying the name of a certain person two times This refers especially to the usage of your own name twice. If you state your double name in the same sentence it means that you want to say that your unusual and unacceptable behavior should be justified. For instance: All I can say is that Emily is being Emily. Even worse to say would be me being me. So, whenever you use such a verbal trick as a way to give a description of that particular person, youre simply trying to make an excuse for bad behavior you would never accept from any other person. What is more, everyone is familiar with that. Closing a discussion without any profound justification Another common verbal tic is when you end a talk not providing any supporting phrases or backup. Bear in mind that while making a decision it is of a great importance to give the supported closure. If you forget about this significant step, then it will undoubtedly lead to failure and misunderstanding. Pretending you are hesitating when, in reality, you are quite sure In this case, people may make an attempt to show that they still have mind opened to new suggestions or points of view. They might be really 100% sure, however, pretending they can change their plans if something goes differently than discussed before. Remember, you shouldnt say you are not sure unless you truly have a desire to reconsider certain viewpoints. Excessive use of one and the same word As a result, people hear only this word, in spite of the fact that you want to tell them lots of other interesting information. For example, my boss used such phrases like in other words, regarding and in general almost in every single sentence. Sometimes he even managed to cram all of them into one sentence. Falling in love with a word or a phrase will mean that your audience can become not only sick and tired of them, but will not even hear other words. Thus, you need to stop using such words or phrases. It will be hard, but only practice makes perfect!

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Congressional Oversight and the U.S. Government

Congressional Oversight and the U.S. Government Congressional oversight refers to the power of the United States Congress to monitor and, if necessary, change the actions of the executive branch, including the many federal agencies. The primary goals of congressional oversight are to prevent waste, fraud, and abuse, and to protect civil liberties and individual rights by ensuring that the executive branch complies with the laws and the Constitution. Derived from its â€Å"implied† powers in the U.S. Constitution, public laws, and House and Senate rules, congressional oversight is one of the key elements of the American system of checks and balances of power.   Key Takeaways: Congressional Oversight Congressional oversight refers to the power of the U.S. Congress to monitor and change, if necessary, the actions of the executive branch, including the many federal agencies.The main goals of congressional oversight are preventing waste, fraud, and abuse, and protecting rights and civil liberties.Congressional oversight is one of the â€Å"implied† powers granted to Congress by the â€Å"necessary and proper† clause of the Constitution.In empowering the legislative branch of government to oversee the executive branch, congressional oversight forms a key element of the system of checks and balances of power. The scope of Congress’ powers of oversight extends to virtually all programs, activities, regulations, and polices implemented by the presidential cabinet departments, independent executive agencies, regulatory boards and commissions, and the President of the United States. Should Congress find evidence that an agency has incorrectly applied or exceeded its powers, Congress can pass a law overruling the action or narrowing the agency’s regulatory authority. Congress can also limit an agency’s power by reducing its funding in the annual federal budget process.   Oversight Definition Dictionaries define â€Å"oversight† as â€Å"watchful and responsible care.† In the context of congressional oversight, this â€Å"watchful and responsible care† is applied through a wide variety of congressional activities, including detailed investigations of program spending appropriations and re-authorizations requests. Oversight may be conducted by standing and select congressional committees, and through reviews and studies conducted by congressional support agencies and staff.   In Congress, oversight comes in many forms including: Hearings and investigations conducted by the standing or special congressional committees;Consulting with or getting reports directly from the president;Giving its advice and consent for certain high-level presidential nominations and for treaties;Impeachment proceedings conducted in the House and tried in the Senate;House and Senate proceedings under the 25th Amendment should the president become disabled, or the office of the vice president becomes vacant;Senators and Representatives serving on presidentially-appointed commissions; andSpecial studies conducted by congressional committees and support agencies such as the Congressional Budget Office, the General Accountability Office, the Office of Technology Assessment, and the Congressional Research Service. Powers of Congress: When ‘Necessary and Proper’ While the Constitution does not formally grant Congress the authority to oversee the actions of the executive branch, oversight is clearly implied in the many enumerated powers of Congress. The power of congressional oversight is further reinforced by the â€Å"necessary and proper† clause (Article I, Section 8, Clause 18) of the Constitution, which grants Congress the power, â€Å"To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof.† The necessary and proper clause further implies that Congress has the power to investigate the actions of the executive branch. It would be impossible for Congress to apply its oversight powers without knowing whether federal programs are being administered properly and within their budgets and whether executive branch officials are obeying the law and complying with the legislative intent of the laws.   The U.S. Supreme Court has confirmed the investigative powers of Congress, subject to constitutional safeguards for civil liberties. In the 1927 case of McGrain v. Daugherty, the Court specifically found that, in investigating actions taken by the Department of Justice, Congress had constitutionally considered a subject â€Å"on which legislation could be had or would be materially aided by the information which the investigation was calculated to elicit.† Statutory Mandated for Congressional Oversight Along with the necessary and proper clause of the Constitution, several important laws provide broad mandates for the power of congressional oversight. For example, the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 requires the executive agencies to consult Congress when developing their strategic plans and report on their plans, goals, and results at least annually to the Government Accountability Office (GAO).   Perhaps the most impactful, the Inspectors General Act of 1978 created within each executive branch agency an independent watchdog Office of Inspector General (OIG) assigned to investigate and report on problems of waste, fraud, and abuse to Congress. The Reports Consolidation Act of 2000 requires the OIGs to identify and report the most serious management and performance problems within the agencies they monitor.   Indeed, one of the first laws passed by the First Congress in 1789 established the Treasury Department and required the Secretary and the Treasurer to report directly to Congress on public expenditures and all accounts. Congressional Oversight Committees Today, as in the earliest days of the Republic, Congress exercises its power of oversight largely through its congressional committee system. The rules of both the House and Senate allow their committees and subcommittees to practice â€Å"special oversight† or â€Å"comprehensive policy oversight,† on issues relating to legislation under their jurisdiction. At the highest level, the House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform and the Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, have oversight jurisdiction over virtually every area of the federal government.   In addition to these and other standing committees, Congress has the power to appoint temporary â€Å"select† oversight committees to investigate major problems or scandals within the executive branch. Examples of inquiries conducted by select committees include the Watergate scandal in 1973-1974; Iran-Contra affair in 1987; and the suspected acquisition of U.S. nuclear weapons by China in 1999.  Ã‚   Famous Examples of Congressional Oversight Over the years, government officials have been exposed and ousted, major policies have been changed, and the degree of statutory control over the executive branch has been increased as a result of Congress’ oversight powers. In 1949, a select Senate subcommittee discovered corruption within the administration of President Harry S. Truman. As a result, several agencies were reorganized and a special White House commission was appointed to investigate evidence of corruption in all areas of government.In the late 1960s, televised hearings of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee on the so-called Pentagon Papers solidified public opposition to continued U.S. participation in the Vietnam War, hastening the end of the conflict.Less than a year after details of the 1973 Watergate scandal were exposed, the House Judiciary Committees impeachment proceedings against President Richard Nixon resulted in his resignation from office.  More recently, during 1996 and 1997, the Senate Finance Committee investigated and confirmed whistleblower reports from Internal Revenue Service (IRS) tax collection agents that they had been pressured by their supervisors to harass citizens who claimed they had been wrongly accused o f owing unpaid taxes. As a result, Congress, in 1998, passed legislation to reform the IRS by creating a new independent oversight board within the agency, extending the rights and protections of taxpayers, and shifting the burden of proof in tax disputes from taxpayers to the IRS. In these and countless other cases, the power of congressional oversight has been essential in monitoring and checking the powers of the executive branch and helping improve the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of federal government operations in general. Sources Halchin LE (2012). â€Å"Congressional Oversight.† CRS report to Congressâ€Å"Congressional Oversight of the Executive.† Joint Committee on the Organization of Congress. US House of Representativesâ€Å"McGrain v. Daugherty.†

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Marlene Dietrich Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Marlene Dietrich - Essay Example She was able to cultivate an image that people easily identify as her persona and, most importantly, an image that created a need based on the desires of the audience. Through the manner by which her image was carefully defined, scripted and invented, Dietrich was able to hold onto the material and spiritual power which allowed her image to exemplify â€Å"society producing the impasse into which it casts its members on the level of the libido as much as on the level of economics: the desire for what cannot be avoided without a radical rupture with the world that has formed us.† Consider how some critics point out that the success of The Blue Angel was not because of an excellent storyline or the genius of neither its director, Josef von Sternberg nor its sexual context. If one says that the film succeeded because of Lola’s legs, then those that featured the same theme with different actresses exploiting equally excellent thighs could have been as effective. But that is not the case. With the film, men were given an object of desire that is mostly according to what Dietrich had to give. Lola’s legs and her character did not merely become the foundation of the Dietrich image that movie audience carried in their heads. It was Dietrich’s acumen and sense of what she wanted and how she wanted to be seen and perceived that made the difference. As she made her films, Dietrich learned how to best represent herself, highlight her assets or make an aspect of persona prominent.... Lola’s legs and her character did not merely become the foundation of the Dietrich image that movie audience carried in their heads. It was Dietrich’s acumen and sense of what she wanted and how she wanted to be seen and perceived that made the difference. As she made her films, Dietrich learned how to best represent herself, highlight her assets or make an aspect of persona prominent. This is demonstrated, for instance, in the invention of the so-called â€Å"Dietrich face.† In the earlier photographs of Dietrich, her upturned nose is quite obvious. As a matter of fact, this minor flaw has earned her the moniker "Ducknose" because it is stuck up like those of the duck’s.3 Critics were particularly focused in this aspect during Dietrich early career that is why she learned how to work around it. Later photographs would no longer show this weakness prompting some sectors to say she underwent facial surgery. This, of course, was not true because it was Dietr ich herself who discovered how she could address the problem. Bach explained this in detail: She found it in an automatic photo booth in Berlin, the kind that prints out cheap photograph on strips. She stepped into one to pose, actively searching for a look, and discovered that with a single overhead lamp, her hair went light, she had cheekbones, her pale blue eyes went dark, the upturned nose became straight. There would be sophisticated refinements of makeup and technique, but now the difficulty was getting cameramen to light her her way.4 One can say that Dietrich became a technician in this way. She would go against directions if the lighting is against her wishes. This â€Å"stubbornness† actually paid off. Besides appearing more pleasing, the

Friday, October 18, 2019

CEATIVE WRITING SHORT STORY Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

CEATIVE WRITING SHORT STORY - Essay Example Professor Sam dedicated his entire inheritance to his project of finding aliens and other intelligent being in deep space spending millions of dollars in telescopes, communication equipment and other scientific devices. He was mocked by the scientific community and the academe doubted the professor that he was seldomly invited for any speaking engagement nor asked to lecture in the universities. Still, Professor Sam insisted that an intelligent being exists in deep space and may also be equally curious to find other intelligent beings in the same manner that we do or in his case, he does. Professor’s daily ritual involves checking the log of his interspace radar for any signs of unidentified flying objects. He also adjust his telescopes from time to time as he try to explore the deep skies. It has been like these for years and for years, the poor professor has been mocked. If not for his inheritance, the good professor may have been sleeping in the streets because his projects were funded by his inheritance. Until one day his radar registered an unusual bleep. At first Professor Sam did not take it seriously but it became persistent for weeks. Then on a sunny Monday morning, the Professor heard an audible voice on his com. At first they were not able to understand it but the Professor became ecstatic because the voice came from an intelligent being. Months have passed and they were able to developed a decoder and for the first time they understood the voice on the com. It said â€Å"This Captain Explorer of Planet XYZ in the Obscura Galaxy, if anyone can hear me please respond†. Professor Sam ecstatically replied and two communicated for months until an arrangement of a visit was finalized. The world was captivated by the Professor’s discovery. Suddenly, the world’s attention was now focused on the Professor and it made him an instant celebrity. From being a weird, unknown, obscured and even a loathed scientist to popular, well-loved

The accidental investment and Mans search for meaning compared Essay

The accidental investment and Mans search for meaning compared - Essay Example These themes revolve around ethics, morality, values and motivation. Ethics is the differentiation of good and bad and so is morality. Morality however has an aspect that revolves around the background the individual or people have been brought up in and the morals that were instilled in such individuals. It is therefore not a wonder then that in the first book which solely deals with bankers, the author describes in detail how some bankers shamelessly and in most cases surreptitiously swindle their clients finances by lying about investments and especially those made through the internet. The author who was also in that business but later due to the lack of ethics and morality of the colleagues left explains how those bankers are self-centered thinking only about their future and not of those clients. This may be termed as a lack of morality, self-value and even ethics. The theme of motivation in this book becomes evident where it the motivations of the bankers to make ends meet and avoid having a poor future that make them swindle and lie to clients about investments. The same can be said about the second book whose concept of lack of morality, values and ethics revolves around the Nazi soldiers whose lack of the above mentioned themes led to them treating the Jews inhumanely and subjecting them to unbearable torture. It is this torture that made the author of the book decide to introduce a motivator through counseling the rest of the prisoners to keep their hopes and dreams alive and avoid them losing touch and giving up in life despite them being in the concentration camp. In the first book about investment, the author gives first-hand experience of what really goes on in the investment business that the rest of the population do not know are simply too ignorant to understand. The ethics and morality by bankers in the investment business has simply evolved from being that based on truth and deep care for the client to that of making money and generating rev enue regardless of how they will do it. Their values are not in customer satisfaction or benefit like it used to be the case in other previous decades, they simply think about themselves and their future which is uncertain and hence will fleece the innocent investors of their money without flinching an eye. Their motivation relies on internet and it superb working to connect many investors and at the same time remain faceless hence avoiding feelings of guilt in the end. The other book â€Å"Man’s search of meaning† is simply a personal experience about the author’s time spent in Nazi’s concentration camp, the hardships they faced, the inhumane treatment, the lack of morals and values by the guards running the camps and in the end the motivation behind survival in the camps and not giving up hope in spite of all the mistreatment. The theme of the first part of the book is about ethics and morality and how the guards in the concentration camp just like the bankers in the above book think about only themselves and hence step down harder on the rest of the people to achieve their goals and objectives at the end of the day. The motivation in the second part where logo therapy is employed by the author in a bid to keep alive and survive all that is interconnected with the motivation behind the banker’s use of internet to benefit themselves and feel less guilt or sad emotions for what they are doing. 2 How do the themes connect with my own ethics, values, interests and motivators? Ethics enable a person differentiate between the good and the bad and therefore make one avoid or correct the things that are deemed bad by the individual or society and concentrate on the good or work towards the good. The

Thursday, October 17, 2019

In the two(2) novels, analyze how the science in Science Fiction is Essay

In the two(2) novels, analyze how the science in Science Fiction is essential to making Science Fiction a literature of cognitive estrangement - Essay Example Individuals will then believe, that confidence, to be a sense of power. So, we can see the link between science, psychology and power, with science being the initiator. But, some times the acquired power could be a false sense of power as well. This paper will discuss this link and the role of science through the characters, Case and Armitage in Neuromancer written by William Gibson and through Androids in Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?, written by Philip K. Dick, and thereby analyze how the science in Science Fiction is essential to making Science Fiction a literature of cognitive estrangement. The environment in Neuromancer is full of science in the form of cyberspace. In that environment, the central character of Case, a computer hacker was recruited by a shadowy character, Armitage along with Molly to complete a series of missions. And in the course of the story, that mission control gets transferred to an Artificial Intelligence entity, named Wintermute, which uses Case’s services and science to integrate with another AI entity, Neuromancer. The mind of Case is an addicted one. Apart from the drug addict ness, which he suffered due to his low life; Case’s mind was also addicted to an entirely different entity, the entity of Cyberspace. That is, Case’s desire to connect to the cyberspace was thwarted by the injections of neurotoxins administrated by his corporate employers for his act of stealing. So, this injection of neurotoxins destabilized his nervous system and made him ‘handicapped’ to jack in the cyberspace. This of inability of Case to connect to the cyberspace created a sort of craving for the cyberspace and which only transformed into addiction. â€Å"For Case, whod lived for the bodiless exultation of cyberspace, it was the Fall. (Gibson p.12)†. And, this addicted mind got a new thought process when Mr. Armitage, wanted to utilize Case’s hacking abilities. So, using the computer technology and

Explain and Contrast Three Major Interpretations of the Fourth Essay

Explain and Contrast Three Major Interpretations of the Fourth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution by the Supreme Court - Essay Example The Warrant Approach Before the 1960s, the courts approached the interpretation of the Fourth Amendment by closely linking the two clauses on reasonableness and warrant. The first is deemed a mere introduction to the second clause, which implies that so long as warrants are employed in conducting the search and seizure, then the principle of the Fourth Amendment is met because the warrant is the embodiment of the reasonableness clause. On the other hand, any search and seizure conducted without the use of a warrant is ipso facto unreasonable and defies the reasonableness clause of said Amendment (Harr & Hess, 2007, pp. 178-179). This approach is underpinned by the idea that unless within established exceptions, warrantless searches or seizures in which there have been no prior approval by the court are unreasonable because they are conducted outside the realm of the judicial process (cited in the dissent of Stewart in US v Edwards 415 US 800 (1974). The conventional Warrant Approach is evident in the cases of Coolidge v New Hampshire 403 US 443-454, US v. Chadwick 433 U.S. 1 (1977), Payton v New York 445 US 573 (1980), Go-Bart Importing Co v US 282 U.S. 344, the dissent in US v Edwards 415 U.S. 800 (1974) and Camara v. Municipal Court 387 US 523 (1967). In Coolidge, the US Supreme Court reversed and remanded the conviction of the defendant on the ground that the evidence supporting it was inadmissible for violation of the Fourth Amendment. The search warrant for the search of the defendant’s car was invalid because it was issued by the Attorney General who was the chief prosecutor of the case and was therefore not a â€Å"neutral and detached magistrate.† Because there was, in effect, an absence of warrant, the search was deemed done outside the judicial process and was per se unreasonable. In Chadwick, the Court ruled that opening a footlocker inside the trunk of a car without a warrant contravened the Fourth Amendment because of the heightened p rivacy expectation attached to it. In Payton, a New York law allows the police to enter a felony suspect’s home and arrest him without a warrant. The Court ruled that this law violated the Fourth Amendment because it allowed a search without prior authority granted by a neutral magistrate. In Go-Bart Importing, the Court reversed again a judgment of conviction on the ground that the search of a desk and a safe and the seizure of evidence therefrom on the basis of a search warrant issued by the US Commissioner were invalid under the Fourth Amendment. Finally in Camara, the Court ruled that searches conducted by government health and safety inspectors are subject to warrant under the Fourth Amendment because they intrude upon the privacy of persons protected by it and unless the owner consents to the search, the same is deemed unreasonable. The Reasonableness Approach In the 1960s, the US Supreme Court broadened its interpretation of the Fourt

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Accounting Scandal Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Accounting Scandal - Essay Example Due to Enron’s scandal, the core principles of auditing have dynamically changed. This paper will seek to portray the keen principles of Enron’s root cause of its downfall and the potential impact it made that has crippled other companies. Choose an accounting scandal (from the link below) and summarize it.   Please include the following in the summary:   1) A brief description/background of the company.   One of the biggest frauds that has ever taken place in the modern 21st century commerce was the case with Enron. Enron’s scandal without a doubt has been the focal point for one of the biggest busts in the history of American entity. The Enron Scandal and the Neglect of Management Integrity Capacity Enron was a very prosperous and prominent firm that was an American energy company established in Houston, Texas. Enron was formed in 1985 by Kenneth Lay after he had acquired two other gas companies in his quest to become a conglomerate in the American history. Nonetheless, after Enron’s biggest scandal, shareholders lost around $11 billion as the company continued on the downward spiral. Enron finally filed for bankruptcy at its $63.4 billion in assets were completely diluted. Many of the stockholders got measly pennies back for the huge investments they had in the company. 2) When the scandal was (or is believed to be) formed.   ... The continuous spiral of modifying the financial statements became a continuous habit and the lead cause of the downfall for the company. Undoubtedly, managers in corporate America have to protect the interests of the corporate executives along with the goals of the stakeholders. The management clearly neglected responsibility of overseeing the unethical practices that were plaguing the corporation. The Enron scandal continued to grow worse every year as it became a problem that was out of control. The primary motivation for Enron was to keep their gross income high along with cash flow while diminishing their liabilities and long-term debts. 3) An in-depth analysis of the accounting scandal.   As mentioned before, Enron ran a Ponzi scheme that continued to over-inflate the revenues that they were actually earning. Enron and other energy suppliers earned sales by providing services such as electricity, natural gas and providing other risk management products. Traditionally, compani es similar to Enron such as Goldman Sachs and Merrill Lynch used simple pure â€Å"brick and mortar† model for reporting income. However, Enron took upon a new model known as â€Å"the merchant model.† This model was however not adapted by Enron as they utilized the merchant model, which was aggressive, risky and was based on a subjective representation of revenues that were estimated. Although the system did thrive as Enron continued to promise huge compensations for its executives, it also lead to the downfall for the company. For instance, the company’s revenue from 1996 to 2000, Enron’s revenues were grossly inflated to be increased by 700%. This extensive inflation was highly unjustified as the market for

Explain and Contrast Three Major Interpretations of the Fourth Essay

Explain and Contrast Three Major Interpretations of the Fourth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution by the Supreme Court - Essay Example The Warrant Approach Before the 1960s, the courts approached the interpretation of the Fourth Amendment by closely linking the two clauses on reasonableness and warrant. The first is deemed a mere introduction to the second clause, which implies that so long as warrants are employed in conducting the search and seizure, then the principle of the Fourth Amendment is met because the warrant is the embodiment of the reasonableness clause. On the other hand, any search and seizure conducted without the use of a warrant is ipso facto unreasonable and defies the reasonableness clause of said Amendment (Harr & Hess, 2007, pp. 178-179). This approach is underpinned by the idea that unless within established exceptions, warrantless searches or seizures in which there have been no prior approval by the court are unreasonable because they are conducted outside the realm of the judicial process (cited in the dissent of Stewart in US v Edwards 415 US 800 (1974). The conventional Warrant Approach is evident in the cases of Coolidge v New Hampshire 403 US 443-454, US v. Chadwick 433 U.S. 1 (1977), Payton v New York 445 US 573 (1980), Go-Bart Importing Co v US 282 U.S. 344, the dissent in US v Edwards 415 U.S. 800 (1974) and Camara v. Municipal Court 387 US 523 (1967). In Coolidge, the US Supreme Court reversed and remanded the conviction of the defendant on the ground that the evidence supporting it was inadmissible for violation of the Fourth Amendment. The search warrant for the search of the defendant’s car was invalid because it was issued by the Attorney General who was the chief prosecutor of the case and was therefore not a â€Å"neutral and detached magistrate.† Because there was, in effect, an absence of warrant, the search was deemed done outside the judicial process and was per se unreasonable. In Chadwick, the Court ruled that opening a footlocker inside the trunk of a car without a warrant contravened the Fourth Amendment because of the heightened p rivacy expectation attached to it. In Payton, a New York law allows the police to enter a felony suspect’s home and arrest him without a warrant. The Court ruled that this law violated the Fourth Amendment because it allowed a search without prior authority granted by a neutral magistrate. In Go-Bart Importing, the Court reversed again a judgment of conviction on the ground that the search of a desk and a safe and the seizure of evidence therefrom on the basis of a search warrant issued by the US Commissioner were invalid under the Fourth Amendment. Finally in Camara, the Court ruled that searches conducted by government health and safety inspectors are subject to warrant under the Fourth Amendment because they intrude upon the privacy of persons protected by it and unless the owner consents to the search, the same is deemed unreasonable. The Reasonableness Approach In the 1960s, the US Supreme Court broadened its interpretation of the Fourt

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Homosexuality and Sullivan Essay Example for Free

Homosexuality and Sullivan Essay There is much controversy on the rights of same sex marriage ranging from religious viewpoints to the rights as individuals being able to obtain the same rights as heterosexual couples. In the essay â€Å"My Big Fat Straight Wedding† written by Andrew Sullivan, he asks his audience to see the option of gay marriage through the eyes of each person’s own individuality. In his essay, his language, tone, and arguments seem to speak to a specific audience letting them know change is coming and naturally as it should. He gives examples of his own same sex marriage in California and how it made him feel as an individual. Sullivan’s main point was to prove as individuals we all should have the right to marry whom we want and eventually same sex marriages will be understood and accepted. Starting with the tone of the essay you get a feeling as if Sullivan is speaking to you in a conversation, asking his audience a question. Andrew Sullivan’s first line in the essay sets the tone for the language he uses throughout the text â€Å"What if gays were straight? †(102) Sullivan challenges the reader to find absurdity in even the thought of it. Reading that line alone, I could tell that Sullivan was pro for gay marriage. The tone of the essay comes across as though it is a crime to not think of gay marriage as an individual right. There are many places were homosexuality is still uncommon and it is clear the author might be writing to a younger audience in a more diverse area. Sullivan jumps back and forth through the essay with different attitudes in his text. He provides a passage from a California ruling and then asks his audience a serious question. He sets a tone for his readers to question the government and its laws, providing evidence that the laws easily contradict itself. He then uses examples from reality television show, telling his audience that suggesting homosexuals are now more accepted because they are on T. V. How are readers supposed to take the essay serious if references to MTV’s Real World as made as evidence? What about all the small towns in America who don’t have a monthly television subscription to MTV? If Sullivan wants to the readers to question the definition of individuality and how we use the term, he definitely challenges the reader to think. The definition of ndividual alone shows contradictions in civil right laws and constitutional rights we have as Americans. In some parts of his essay does not seem serious or sincere rather seems as if his readers should know what is wrong. He mocks the laws for not giving homosexuals their own right or individuality and the essay comes off less informative and more sarcastic. Homosexuality may be normal in some states of America but he speaks to his audience as if it is accepted everywhere even though gay marriage is only legal in nine out of fifty states in the United States. Sullivan sets up a whole war of counter arguments in his tone alone, because gay marriage is still not legal everywhere in America and he makes light of the issues still at hand. While reading the essay, there seem were to questions that weren’t fully answered. Sullivan sets up a good argument through his own personal experience of marriage and the sense of comfort he found when he experienced it. There is no better argument than personal experience because no one can argue with someone’s own experience. I found his experience of marriage very sincere because if one has a sense of family you can relate on the emotions you may feel with them. Sullivan touches his audience with the relation of family and the good or bad emotions you can feel when you’re with them. He makes the reader feel empathic towards his wedding, allowing them to stand in his shoes and experience the joy you feel when you are getting married. Although the gay culture is accepted in some parts of the United States it does not answer for all the other places in the United States where it is still uncommon. Just because gay culture is now shown on television, or there are now gay soldiers it does not answer the one question he asks which is â€Å"Why don’t gay people have their own individual rights to get married? † In providing fun pop culture facts he can relate to a younger more diverse audience but it does not change the fact that marriage is not legal. He also goes on in the essay saying that the gay culture is more common in this era and suggests more people are coming out at younger ages. This reference brings out a counter argument. What about all the areas in the United States and around the world where people cannot come out because it is not accepted where they live? It contradicts his whole argument that our country is going in the right moral direction of accepting gay relationships. Are we being racist or is being gay morally wrong? Sullivan leaves his essay open for a lot of counter arguments because his essay suggests that although gay marriage laws were passed in the state he lives in; but in forty-one other st ates gay couples still cannot wed. His reference at the end of his essay, suggests that it written in the time period gay marriage was legal in California. Same sex marriages were legal in California; 5 months later Prop 8 was passed and gay marriage was illegal again. At this point where same sex marriages are not legal in California anymore, the author comes off as arrogant and too confident in his thought of America changing its thoughts of homosexuality because it marriage is not possible for the gay community in California anymore. The language in Sullivan uses comes off as accessible; it is easily read and understood. The author shows his viewpoint on homosexuality with emotional language pointing out an argument and then calling it â€Å"absurd†. With his use of certain words and phrases you can set a tone and even sense a vibe from the reader that he is emotional about the topic. In one of his arguments he says â€Å"This transformation in understanding happened organically. †(103) he leaves his essay open for argument. Saying the world â€Å"organically† suggests that America is slowly and naturally is starting to understand the gay community. Is understanding the gay community going to happen naturally? And if so why hasn’t it happened yet? The language the author uses shows his emotion towards the topic, which eventually starts asking the reader to choose sides. The essay can start to become more bias and less informative. Sullivan also uses the slang â€Å"gays† and â€Å"straights†. In using the slang his essay might be less appealing to a broader audience, because although Sullivan is gay himself, it may offend people gay or not. The tone, text, and content in which Sullivan provides his audience seems like he may have a target group maybe of college students who live in California and comfortable with the gay culture and passionate about same-sex marriages. He seems although he is just reminding his audience of their rights, as individuals and letting them know that the gay community are supposed to be considered as individuals first. It seems to miss the millions of people that are unaware the unfair injustice homosexuals may face. The essay may not touch a broader audience because still in forty one states same sex marriages is still not legal and reading this essay may just remind them of that and prove his whole essay as a false hope.

Monday, October 14, 2019

Caring for the Dementia Patient: Evidence Based Practice

Caring for the Dementia Patient: Evidence Based Practice Lisa Krier The population of elderly people in society is continually increasing, which places demands on the health care system. Drugs are extensively used in the elderly, and when the patients have dementia, this raises their level of vulnerability (Jedenius, Johnell, Fastbom, Stromqvist, Winbald Andreasen, 2011). The administration of psychotropic drugs to dementia patients experiencing out of character responses has become increasingly controversial. Many of these drugs come with black-box warnings from the FDA, have not been approved for use in patients with dementia and are not recommended for the elderly. Many of these drugs have shown to be harmful in the elderly, decreasing quality of life and even leading to death, and have adverse effects (Azermai, Elseviers, Petrovic, Van Bortel, Vander Stichele, 2011). Nurses have two options when dementia patients experience out of character responses, 1) administer a psychotropic medication to calm the resident, or 2) use a therapeutic approach to calm the patient without the potential of adverse side effects that medications pose (Logsdon, McCurry, Teri, 2007). Change Model Overview The John Hopkins Nursing Evidence-Based Practice Process consists of defining the practice question, gathering, appraising, and synthesizing the available evidence, and then translating the plan into the clinical setting. Nurses with various levels of education have been able to use this process successfully with mentors assisting and the support of their organizations. Nursing professionals find this process beneficial in understanding the elements of nursing intervention and implementing the evidence found into their practice setting (Dearholt Dang, 2012) Practice Question Step 1: Identify an EBP question The population involved in this evidence-based practice question is dementia patients who experience out of character responses. The intervention being utilized is the use of therapeutic approaches to calm the dementia patient, compared with the use of psychotropic drugs to calm the dementia patient suffering an out of character response. The desired outcome is to see a decrease in the number and severity of out of character reactions in the patients, along with fewer adverse side effects that psychotropic medications may have (Jeste et al., 2008). Step 2: Scope of practice question The population of elderly in the United States is steadily increasing and many of these elderly will require the services of a long-term care facility sometime in their life (Harris-Kojetson, Sengupta, Park-Lee, Valverde, 2013). It is estimated that 69% of residents in long-term care facilities were taking at least one psychotropic medication (Galik Resnick, 2013). Out of character reactions are common in patients with dementia, but there is no FDA approved drugs to deal with these responses in the dementia patient. The unlabeled use of psychotropic medications is commonly used, even though many of these drugs come with black-box warnings from the FDA. These drugs can cause postural hypotension, sedation, falls, and even mortality, especially with the use of atypical antipsychotics (Jeste et al., 2008). The cost of fall related injuries are estimated to be between $16 and $19 billion annually for nonfatal injuries and around $170 million for deaths resulting from falls, adding addi tional demands on an already stressed health care system (Currie, 2008). Steps 3, 4, and 5: Team The team members involved in this pilot project consist of the Memory Support Coordinator, the Life Enrichment Coordinator, the night shift nursing supervisor, the day shift nursing supervisor, two Certified Nursing Assistants from the day shift and one Certified Nursing Assistance from the night shift. All of the selected participants have direct patient contact and work in the Memory Support Unit with all of the patients having a diagnosis of dementia. The Memory Support Coordinator will be the projects bridge to the facilitys administration. The chosen team members will be trained in therapeutic approaches to maintain a calming environment and to utilize when any of the patients experiences an out of character response. Evidence Steps 6 and 7: Internal and external search for evidence The quantitative research that was obtained for this projected consisted of three peer-reviewed research articles and one systematic review. One of the peer-reviewed research articles that was utilized for this project was of high evidence, with the other two peer-reviewed research articles containing good evidence. The systematic review that was used consisted of several randomized controlled trials. All of the articles used for this project did make recommendations based upon the evidence cited in the research. Steps 8 and 9: Summarize the evidence One of the peer-reviewed research articles that was obtained was of high strength and evidence. It consisted of a randomized study, a large sample size, a control group, and detailed the physical outcomes of dementia patients receiving psychotropic medications. The study recommends that careful consideration of the adverse effects of psychotropic medication used in the elderly along with further longitudinal studies is necessary to fully explore the impact these medications have on the elderly (Galik Resnick, 2013). The other two peer-reviewed research articles that were obtained were of good evidence and strength. One of the articles consisted of a systematic review of randomized clinical trials and discussed behavioral treatments that were successful in treating behavioral disturbances in dementia patients (Logsdon, McCurry, Teri, 2007). The third peer-reviewed research articles utilized for this project was a randomized study to discuss the prevalence of psychotropic medications used in nursing homes in relation to patient’s behaviors. The article consisted of a randomized study with a large sample size, but the study did not have a control group. Several recommendations were cited, including the withdrawal of psychotropic therapy in the elderly population (Azermai, Elseviers, Petrovic, Van Bortel, Stichele, 2011). The final research that was used for this project was a systematic review of randomized, controlled trials that had adequate sample sizes and control groups. This article discusses the two approaches used in treating dementia patients with behavior disturbances, pharmacological and behavioral. The articles discuss what is known and what is not known in regards to the two approaches and make several clinical and research recommendations (Jeste et al., 2008). Step 10: Recommendations for change All of the articles used in this project discussed the adverse effects of psychotropic medication use in this population and the fact that these medications are not effective in treating behavior disturbances in the dementia patient. When psychotropic medications are used to treat out of character responses in the elderly, they are being prescribed off-label as the FDA has not approved any of these medications for treating behavioral disturbances in the dementia patient. Also, many psychotropic medications come with black-box warnings from the FDA and have been proven to have many adverse effects, especially in the elderly population (Jeste et al., 2008). Two of the articles discuss the success of the use of therapeutic approaches in calming the dementia patient experiencing an out of character response. What makes the use of therapeutic approaches exciting is that there are no adverse physical effects associated with them and the quality of life is not diminished, and may possibly b e enhanced, in the dementia patient (Logsdon, McCurry, Teri, 2007). Translation Steps 11, 12, and 13: Action plan This pilot study will take place in the Memory Support Unit, which is home to approximately 36 residents, all of whom have a diagnosis of dementia. The eight faculty members that will be participating in this study will all attend a three-day training seminar on how to recognize the early signs of residents who are becoming anxious, and implementing therapeutic approaches for these patients to calm them rapidly and efficiently without the use of medication. After the training seminar, the staff will meet on a biweekly basis and carefully review each residents life story to become familiar with their history and likes or dislikes to design therapeutic approaches that are appropriate for the individual patient, as well as thoroughly examine the behavioral monitoring sheets of each resident who experiences out of character responses. The primary emphasis for the team will be to maintain a calm, quiet environment to prevent the onset of out of character responses, and decrease the number and severity of these behavioral disturbances. This project will be evaluated during each biweekly meeting, to see if the therapeutic approaches being used are effective for the individual residents by reviewing their behavioral monitoring sheets. Any changes to the residents individual care plan will take place during these meetings. The pilot study will be evaluated after the first six months to review the effects of any dosage reductions in psychotropic medications for individual residents and the efficacy of any therapeutic approaches utilized to manage their out of character responses. The Memory Support Coordinator will report the results to the administration of the facility and will discuss the findings at the weekly department head meetings. Steps 14 and 15: Evaluating outcomes It is the objective of this pilot study to see dosage reductions in any psychotropic medications being used, and eliminated altogether if possible, and to see the number and severity of out of character responses decreased without the use of psychotropic medication. Residents in the Memory Support Unit who receive psychotropic medications have their records reviewed by the pharmacist on a quarterly basis and recommendations for dosage reductions of these medications are then forwarded to the physician. Residents in the Memory Support Unit have detailed behavioral sheets where any behavioral disturbances are noted, how many times these disturbances occur per shift, any therapeutic interventions utilized before the administration of a prn medication, the efficacy of the intervention utilized, and any side effects noted from the administration of psychotropic medications. The behavioral sheets will be monitored on a weekly basis by the Memory Support Coordinator to see if there have bee n changes in any of the categories previously mentioned. Therapeutic approaches that have proven to be effective for individual residents will be added to their care plans. The individual results for each resident will be discussed at the biweekly meetings attended by the pilot study staff and the Memory Support Coordinator will forward this information on to the administration of the facility. Steps 16, 17, and 18: Implementation As there are dementia residents in every part of the facility, they also have behavioral monitoring sheets where the same information is recorded as those patients residing in the Memory Support Unit. After the initial pilot study staff have been trained and are utilizing therapeutic responses with all of the individuals in the Memory Support Unit, the entire staff in the Unit will be trained and coached by the pilot study staff. After the training has been completed in the Memory Support Unit, staff in the other areas of the facility will be trained and coached by the Memory Support Unit staff and will begin implementing the appropriate therapeutic approaches for their individual patients. The implementation of gradual dose reductions of psychotropic medications, unless clinically contraindicated, is mandated by CMS guidelines, as well as individualized approaches to person-centered care (CMS, 2013). This ensures that the implementations set forth in this pilot study will become per manent. The behavioral sheets for every resident with a diagnosis of dementia and/or receive psychotropic medications will continue to be monitored and discussed at the risk meetings that are attended by all department supervisors on a weekly basis. The results of this study will be entered into a database for forwarded to the home office, to be shared with all of the facilities in the organization. Conclusion The administration of psychotropic medications to elderly patients, especially those suffering from dementia, has been increasingly controversial. Currently there are no medications approved by the FDA for use in dementia patients suffering from behavioral disturbances, and if these drugs are being utilized, they are being prescribed for off-label use (Jeste et al., 2008). Psychotropic medications have shown to have negative effects on the physical function of elderly patients (Galik Resnick, 2013), even leading to mortality (Azermai, Elseviers, Petrovic, Van Bortel, Vander Stichele, 2011). Guidelines from the CMS mandate that gradual dose reductions be attempted for all psychotropic medications, unless clinically contraindicated, and individualized approaches to person-centered care are utilized (CMS, 2013). After thoroughly examining the evidence from the research articles, the pilot study staff will be trained in the use of therapeutic approaches to deal with resident experienci ng out of character responses. As the pilot staff becomes comfortable with implementing these approaches, the staff in the rest of the facility will be trained. The behavioral sheets for each resident will be monitored, and the therapeutic approaches that have proven to be effective for each resident will be added to their individual care plan. The behavioral sheets will be reviewed each week at the risk meetings attended by all department supervisors, and any appropriate changes will be made to the resident’s individualized care plans. The goal of this pilot study is to decrease the dangerous effects of psychotropic drug use in the elderly (Azermai, Elseviers, Petrovic, Van Bortel, Vander Stichele, 2011), as well as improve their quality of life with the use of therapeutic approaches specifically tailored to their individual needs and wants (Logsdon, McCurry, Teri, 2007). References Azermai, M., Elseviers, M., Petrovic, M., Van Bortel, L., Vander Stichele, R., (2011). Geriatric drug utilization of psychotropics in Belgian nursing homes. Human Psychopharmacology, 26, 12-20. Center for Medical Medicaid Services. (2013). Center for clinical standards and quality survey certification group. Retrieved from Currie, L. (2008). Fall and injury prevention. In R. Hughes (Ed.). Patient safety and quality: An evidence-based handbook for nurses. Retrieved from Dearholt S. L., Dang, D. (2012). John Hopkins nursing evidence-based practice: Model and guidelines (2nd ed.). Indianapolis, IN: sigma Theta Tau International. Galik, E., Resnick B. (2013). Psychotropic medication use and association with physical and psychosocial outcomes in nursing home residents. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 20, 244-252. Harris-Kojetson, L., Sengupta, M., Park-Lee, E., Valverde, R. (2013). Long-term care services in the United States: 2013 overview. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. Jedenius, E., Johnell, K., Fastbom, J., Stromqvist, J., Winbald, B, Andreasen, N. (2011). Dementia management programme in a community setting and the use of psychotropic drugs in the elderly population. Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care, 29, 181-186. Jeste, D. V., Blazer, D., Casey, D., Meeks, T., Salzman, C., Schneider, L., †¦ Yaffe, K. (2008). ACNP white paper: Update on use of antipsychotic drugs in elderly persons with dementia. Neuropsychopharmacology, 33, 957-970. Logsdon, R. G., McCurry, S. M., Teri, L. (2007). Evidence-based psychological treatments for disruptive behaviors in individuals with dementia. Psychology and Aging, 22(1), 28-36.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

The Fourteenth Amendment Essay -- Racism Equality Constitution Essays

On a date that will be remembered forever as a step forward for our nation, July 28, 1868, the Fourteenth Amendment became part of the U.S. Constitution. The Fourteenth Amendment gave a new sense of hope and inspiration to a once oppressed people. It was conceived to be the foundation for restoring America to its great status and prosperity. The Amendment allowed â€Å"equal protection under the law†, no matter what race, religion, sex, sexual preference or social status. It was designed to protect the newly freed slaves. However, it only helped the white race. Congress passed the Fourteenth Amendment not knowing how it would affect all the other minorities. Minorities were still treated with disrespect and incivility from the white culture. With Americans pioneering westward, they found a strong-willed people with a simple way of life, the Indians. The conquering American pioneers tried to push their way of life upon the Indians. They directed what the Indians should do, what to eat, and whom or what they should believe in. With the Indians refusing this way of life, and the ensuing battles over their land, put up an immensely hard fought battle against the United States Military led by General Custer. General Custer was facing a leader, a holy man, and an impressive war chief who the Indians had great respect for, Sitting Bull. Sitting Bull vowed to eliminate the American invaders, but came to his demise with a shot to the chest and slash to the back of the head by a Ces...

Saturday, October 12, 2019

AbOrT :: essays research papers

  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Abortion   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Abortion has been and always will be a major, controversial topic in the United States. The controversy is whether to allow a woman to have an abortion or outlaw abortions. The Unites States Supreme Court was supposedly going to make a final decision on the abortion controversy. Instead, the Supreme Court put the burden of deciding on the government of each state. This seems unfair because a woman should have that choice. A woman should have the choice to have her baby aborted in cases involving rape, because of the expensive cost of raising a baby, and in a situation where the woman is just a teenager.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  One reason why women should be given the choice to abort a baby involves cases of rape. Statistics say that rape happens to women many times each day in the United States. When a woman is raped and possibly becomes pregnant, she is not at fault. She may even become traumatized. It should not be her responsibility to take care of the baby for the rest of her life and possibly on her own. To have an abortion would be the only choice.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Another reason why women should have the choice of having an abortion would be the cost of raising a baby. A woman needs to take into consideration the high cast of raising a child. It is necessary to feed the baby well so that he or she will grow healthy and strong. A baby also needs to be well clothed. Furthermore, there is the fact that a child may need medical attention, which can be extremely expensive. To have an abortion would be the only choice.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The final reason why women should have the choice to abort a child is when she is just a teenager. This could devastate the rest of her and her boyfriend’s life. Teenage women may not be emotionally ready for raising a baby. Getting a good education may be forgotten. If she has an abortion, she can concentrate of her education. Also, the girl and boy will learn a lesson never to â€Å"fool around.† This would encourage them to do exceptionally well in school. Again, to have an abortion would be the only choice for a teenager.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  If abortion was outlawed, a raped woman would more that likely feel helpless and insecure.

Friday, October 11, 2019

Balance your schedule as an athlete and student

One of the greatest challenges that student’s face today lies in balancing their schedule. While the primacy of academics has never really been questioned, the presence of several studies showing that it is also important to be well rounded. The biggest problem with that, however, is finding the time to address the needs of academics and that of extra-curricular activities, particularly for student athletes. As such, the most important thing for an student athlete to do in order to be able to cope with the daily duties as well as the workload in school is to have proper time management techniques.It is oft heard that time is something that everyone needs a lot of but never has enough of. The key therefore is in being able to make the most out of the limited time that is available. The first step in doing this is by making a list and finding out just how your time is currently being spent; recording the number of hours in class, for study, at work, at home and for recreation. T his provides the student with an idea of just where most of the time goes and whether or not there are areas which are given more time than others.With the list, it is now possible to determine just how much time is really needed and what the time wasters are. This will allow the student to maximize the time left for studying and school related activities. Having a personal pocketbook calendar or organizer helps in this situation because it gives the individual a snapshot of the daily activities and when there is time saved after doing a certain task, it allows the individual to adjust the rest of the schedule and allot more time for studying. Another technique is by trying to multi-task.While this technique may not be optimal for certain types of individuals, with proper training, any person can effectively multi-task to maximize the limited time. The key here is in being able to identify which tasks can be merged with others and which tasks have similarities with others. Small cho res can be fit in with the regular tasks to save time because even small chores if done individually can consume a lot of time. These time management techniques will allow students to effectively allocate the limited time that is available to study and also fulfill the other daily obligations at work and at home.

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Environmental Psychology Article Analysis

Environmental psychology is a moderately new subfield of psychology. Understanding how individuals interact, perceive, and respond to the built and natural environment is the goal of environmental psychology (Veitch & Arkkelin, 1995). Overcrowding, climate, and pollution are some environmental factors that may definitely have a huge influence on human behavior. Natural disasters not only significantly affect an individual’s life but also a family’s life. Furthermore, understanding this substantial effect and ways to care for and heal the trauma of a natural disaster is an important goal for environmental psychologists (Veitch & Arkkelin, 1995). In August 2005, hurricane Katrina hit Louisiana (NOAA, 2007). The overwhelming aftermath left Louisiana in complete destruction, leaving thousands displaced and almost 2,000 lives lost (NOAA, 2007). In addition, children were lost as well as numerous children left without families. The psychological trauma brought on by this event is a subject that psychologists attempt to understand. Through the article â€Å"Traumatization through Separation: Loss of Family and Home as Childhood Catastrophes† by Ute Benz (2004) this understanding can begin to be met. Throughout this journey, the article will be analyzed for its significance to the trauma suffered in hurricane Katrina, how the people of Louisiana especially young children cope, and how this type of tragedy influences a person’s life. Article Summary. Anna Freud created a home for displaced children in 1940. These children were alienated from their families as a result of the German bombardment of London (Benz, 2004). These children were alienated not only from their families but also their environment. Through Anna Freud’s research during and after this time, she could better comprehend the needs and development of children, particularly during stressful times (2004). Separation from the home and family is one of the most distressing events that can occur in a child’s life. Benz (2004) explores the degree of distress and the amount of influence separation has on different age groups as well as asserting the significance of how caregivers respond and react to these children. The short and long-term effects are also investigated. Benz does this through the works of Anna Freud and Hans Keilson (2004). The article takes on a psychoanalytic approach and emphasizes the importance of separation and trauma in a child’s life along with how a child will function. Hurricane Katrina and Environmental Psychology. As stated above, the effects of hurricane Katrina were devastating. The trauma that the children of Louisiana suffered because of this huge disaster and family separation was extensive. The long-term effects can be theorized only at this point, as this event just occurred in August 2005. Although known that there are certain points in a child’s life in which separation is more distressing; aggression and guilt can occur including ambivalent feelings of love and hate as the cause of this (Benz, 2004). Environmental psychology can hold a momentous place in tying together the effects of an environmental cataclysm such as a hurricane to psychological influence and human behavior. It does not matter what researchers or scientists try to do, natural disasters will never be prevented; however, understanding what treatment plan is better for survivors of any disaster or the best course of action concerning how to respond to this type of situation is essential. Not only does one have to deal with losing friends and family members but also one has to deal with losing his or her home and becoming displaced. All of these situations can be very devastating and can have a major effect on people, especially a child. Conclusion The correlation between a natural disaster and the effects it has on one is brought together through environmental psychology. The perception of the interaction or the environment and event as well as the behavioral and psychological response to the environment lead environmental psychologists through their desire and research for understanding an individual’s behavior in regard to his or her surroundings. The work completed by Hans Keilson and Anna Freud contributed to the understanding of how the environment and the traumatic event of a child who has been separated from his or her family can have considerable psychological effects. The goal of environmental psychologists is to assist in the treatment and care as well as understanding displaced families, children, and an individual.