Monday, September 30, 2019
The following sections contain student copies of the assignments. These must be distributed to students prior to the due dates for the assignments. Online students will have access to these documents in PDF format, which will be available for downloading at any time during the course. Graded Assignment Requirements Assignment Requirements documents provided below must be printed and distributed to students for guidance on completing the assignments and submitting them for grading. Instructors must remind students to retain all handouts and assignment documents issued in every unit, as well as student-prepared documentation and graded assignments. Some or all these documents will be used repeatedly across different units. Unit 1 Assignment 1: Match Risks/Threats to Solutions Learning Objectives and Outcomes You will learn how to match common risks or threats within the seven domains of a typical IT infrastructure with solutions and preventative actions. Assignment Requirements This is a matching activity. You will receive the Match Risks/Threats to Solutions worksheet, which contains a numbered list of common risks and threats found in a typical IT infrastructure. You must enter the letter for the correct solution or preventative action in the blank to the right of each risk or threat. Required Resources Worksheet: Match Risks/Threats to Solutions Submission Requirements Format: Microsoft Word Font: Arial, Size 12, Double-Space Length: 1 page Due By: Unit 2 Self-Assessment Checklist I have correctly matched all the risks or threats within the seven domains of a typical IT infrastructure with the solutions and preventative actions. Unit 1 Assignment 2: Impact of a Data Classification Standard Learning Objectives and Outcomes You will learn how to determine the impact of a data classification standard on an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s IT infrastructure. Assignment Requirements You are a networking intern at Richman Investments, a mid-level financial investment and consulting firm. Your supervisor has asked you to draft a brief report that describes the Ã¢â¬Å"Internal Use OnlyÃ¢â¬ data classification standard of Richman Investments. Write this report addressing which IT infrastructure domains are affected by the standard and how they are affected. In your report, mention at least three IT infrastructure domains affected by the Ã¢â¬Å"Internal Use OnlyÃ¢â¬ data classification standard. Your report will become part of an executive summary to senior management. Required Resources None Submission Requirements Format: Microsoft Word Font: Arial, Size 12, Double-Space Citation Style: Chicago Manual of Style Length: 1Ã¢â¬â2 pages Due By: Unit 2 Self-Assessment Checklist I have identified at least three IT infrastructure domains affected by the Ã¢â¬Å"Internal Use OnlyÃ¢â¬ data classification standard. In my report, I have included details on how those domains are affected. Unit 2 Assignment 1: Calculate the Window of Vulnerability Learning Objectives and Outcomes You will learn how to calculate a window of vulnerability (WoV). Assignment Requirements You are reviewing the security status for a small Microsoft workgroup LAN. The workgroup contains many distinct separations in the network determined by group memberships. An example of the network divisions is as follows: Windows laptops: Traveling salespeople, remote suppliers, branch offices Windows desktops: Accounting group, developer group, customer service group Windows servers: Administrative server, Microsoft SharePoint server, Server Message Block (SMB) server A security breach has been identified in which the SMB server was accessed by an unauthorized user due to a security hole. The hole was detected by the server software manufacturer the previous day. A patch will be available within three days. The LAN administrator needs at least one week to download, test, and install the patch. Calculate the WoV for the SMB server. Required Resources None Submission Requirements Format: Microsoft Word Font: Arial, Size 12, Double-Space Length: 1 page Due By: Unit 3 Self-Assessment Checklist I have accurately calculated the WoV. Unit 2 Assignment 2: Microsoft Environment Analysis Learning Objectives and Outcomes You will learn how to analyze a mixed-version Microsoft Windows environment and to identify the issues described in Microsoft Security Advisories. Assignment Requirements You are reviewing the security status for a small Microsoft workgroup LAN. The workgroup contains many distinct separations in the network as determined by group memberships. The network consists of computers working on a variety of client platforms, such as Windows XP, Windows Vista, and Windows 7, and server products in a single environment. An example of the network divisions is as follows: Windows laptops: Traveling salespeople, remote suppliers, branch offices Windows desktops: Accounting group, developer group, customer service group Windows servers: Administrative server, Microsoft SharePoint server, Server Message Block (SMB) server Microsoft Common Vulnerability and Exposures (CVEs) are addressed through security advisories with a corresponding advisory ID. Other CVE sources attach a CVE ID to advisories. Go through the archive of Microsoft Security Advisories on the following link: http://www. microsoft. com/technet/security/advisory/archive. mspx (accessed September 15, 2010) Answer the following questions based on the advisories for the past 12 months: 1. What vulnerabilities exist for this workgroup LAN based on the advisories? List five of them. 2. Do any vulnerabilities involve privilege elevation? Is this considered a high-priority issue? 3. Identify and document at least three vulnerabilities and the solutions related to the client configurations. Required Resources Internet Submission Requirements Format: Microsoft Word Font: Arial, Size 12, Double-Space Length: 1Ã¢â¬â2 pages Due By: Unit 3 Self-Assessment Checklist I have identified at least five vulnerabilities for this workgroup LAN? I have identified privilege elevation as a high-priority issue? I have identified and documented at least three vulnerabilities related to the client configurations? Unit 3 Discussion 1: Access Control Models Learning Objectives and Outcomes You will learn about access control models for different scenarios. Assignment Requirements In this assignment, you have a handout on the access control models. Read the handout and discuss it with your classmates to collect answers for the following questions: Select an access control model that best prevents unauthorized access for each of the five scenarios given in the worksheet. Which types of logical access controls should be used in each scenario? Justify your recommendations. Respond to at least two other studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ views to engage in a meaningful debate regarding their choices or to defend your choice. Required Resources Worksheet: Access Control Models Submission Requirements Format: Microsoft Word Font: Arial, Size 12, Double-Space Citation Style: Chicago Manual of Style Length: 1Ã¢â¬â2 pages Due By: Unit 3 Self-Assessment Checklist I have correctly selected an access control model that best prevents an unauthorized access for each of the five scenarios given in the worksheet. I have selected the correct types of logical access controls that should be used in each scenario. I have included justifications for my recommendations. I have responded to at least two other studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ views. Unit 3 Assignment 1: Remote Access Control Policy Definition Learning Objectives and Outcomes You will learn how to design a remote access control policy definition for an IT infrastructure. Assignment Requirements Richman Investments is an investment and consulting firm. The company wants to expand its business operations both in the U. S. and in foreign countries. It intends to eventually have 10,000 employees in 20 countries. The Richman corporate headquarters is located in Phoenix, Arizona. Currently, there are eight branch offices in: Atlanta, Georgia Chicago, Illinois Cincinnati, Ohio Denver, Colorado Los Angeles, California Montreal, Canada New York City, New York Washington, D. C. The North American offices have a total of 5,000 employees who use desktops, mobile computers, and wireless devices. The Phoenix office has an Internet connection to all remote offices because redundancy is extremely important to the company. There are several sensitive applications that all offices use. The management from each office share application information that is hosted at the corporate office. Design a remote access control policy for Richman using the appropriate access controls for systems, applications, and data access. Include the design and justification for using the selected access controls for systems, applications, and data access. Required Resources None Submission Requirements Format: Microsoft Word Font: Arial, Size 12, Double-Space Citation Style: Chicago Manual of Style Length: 1Ã¢â¬â2 pages Due By: Unit 4 Self-Assessment Checklist I have correctly designed a remote access control policy for the given scenario. I have correctly selected appropriate access controls for systems, applications, and data access. I have included my justification for using the selected access controls for systems, applications, and data access. Unit 4 Assignment 1: Enhance an Existing IT Security Policy Framework Learning Objectives and Outcomes You will learn how to research standards. You will learn how to write Remote Access Standard. You will learn how procedures and guidelines fit within an IT security policy framework. Assignment Requirements You will receive the worksheet entitled Enhance an Existing IT Security Policy Framework. It contains a scenario and an illustration of a portion of a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s security policy framework. After studying the worksheet, complete the following tasks: Research Remote Access Standards on the Internet. For the given scenario, write a draft Remote Access Standard that will reduce the occurrence of risks, threats, and vulnerabilities in the Remote Access domain of the given IT infrastructure. Make sure you include the minimum remote computer configurations, the use of anti-malware software, and the secure virtual private network (VPN) access in the Remote Access Standard. Indicate the names of procedures or guidelines that you would add under the Remote Access Standard. Required Resources Worksheet: Enhance an Existing IT Security Policy Framework Internet Submission Requirements Format: Microsoft Word Font: Arial, Size 12, Double-Space Citation Style: Chicago Manual of Style Length: 1Ã¢â¬â2 pages Due By: Unit 5 Self-Assessment Checklist I have written an appropriate Remote Access Standard, which includes the minimum remote computer configurations, the use of anti-malware software, and the secure VPN access. I have included the names of at least two procedures or guidelines that would appear under the Remote Access Standard in the framework. Unit 4 Assignment 2: Acceptable Use Policy (AUP) Definition Learning Objectives and Outcomes You will learn how to research and compare AUPs enforced by other organizations. You will learn how to compose a portion of an AUP for an organization. Assignment Requirements You are a networking intern at Richman Investments. An employee of the company used employer-owned equipment to access the Internet and check his personal Web-based e-mail account. He followed a link in a spam e-mail, downloaded games to his hard disk, and inadvertently infected the computer with malware, which spread to the network server. The security officer at Richman has asked you to research and to define Ã¢â¬Å"the acceptable use of Richman assets regarding Internet and e-mail access,Ã¢â¬ including the actions that are prohibited. . Then, the employees must be restricted from using the Internet at work for personal use, other than to occasionally check Web-based personal e-mail accounts. Personal downloads must be strictly prohibited. Your definition will become part of the overall AUP. For this assignment: Research acceptable use policies on the Internet. Find the actual policies of real companies. Compare the portions that address Internet and e-mail access of at least three different companies. Create an AUP definition for Richman Investments that defines the acceptable and unacceptable use of Internet and e-mail access at Richman. Required Resources Internet Submission Requirements Format: Microsoft Word Font: Arial, Size 12, Double-Space Citation Style: Chicago Manual of Style Length: 1Ã¢â¬â2 pages Due By: Unit 5 Self-Assessment Checklist I have conducted adequate research of AUPs before defining the policy. I have included the appropriate statements that address both acceptable and unacceptable use of the Internet and Web-based e-mail accounts. Unit 5 Assignment 1: Testing and Monitoring Security Controls Learning Objectives and Outcomes You will learn to recognize security events and baseline anomalies that might indicate suspicious activity. You will learn to identify policy violations and security breaches and to appropriately monitor threats and control activity across the network. Assignment Requirements Refer to the handout Testing and Monitoring Security Controls. It contains information on security events or breaches and baseline anomalies. After studying the handout, answer the following questions: Identify at least two types of security events and baseline anomalies that might indicate suspicious activity. Given a list of policy violations and security breaches, select three breaches, and consider the best options for controlling and monitoring each incident. Identify the methods to mitigate risk and minimize exposure to threats or vulnerabilities. Required Resources Worksheet: Testing and Monitoring Security Controls Submission Requirements Format: Microsoft Word Font: Arial, Size 12, Double-Space Length: 1Ã¢â¬â2 pages Due By: Unit 6 Self-Assessment Checklist I have identified at least two security events and baseline anomalies. I have indicated the best options for controlling and monitoring three of the policy violations and security breaches from the list. I have identified the methods to mitigate risk and to minimize exposure to threats or vulnerabilities. Unit 5 Assignment 2: Define an Acceptable Use Policy (AUP) Learning Objectives and Outcomes You will learn to successfully identify inappropriate activity on a network and to develop a basic AUP that describes the handling of such incidents. Assignment Requirements Richman Investments requires the enforcement of strict ingress-egress filtering policies for network traffic. Certain traffic is expressly forbidden: No peer-to-peer file sharing or externally reachable file transfer protocol (FTP) servers No downloading executables from known software sites No unauthorized redistribution of licensed or copyrighted material No exporting internal software or technical material in violation of export control laws No introduction of malicious programs into networks or onto systems No accessing unauthorized internal resources or information from external sources No port scanning or data interception on the network No denying service or circumventing authentication to legitimate users No using programs, scripts, or commands to interfere with other network users No sending unsolicited e-mail messages or junk mail to company recipients No accessing adult content from company resources No remote connections from systems failing to meet minimum security requirements Define a LAN-to-WAN, Internet, and Web surfing AUP that restricts usage of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s Internet connection and permits the company to monitor usage of the corporate Internet connection. Carefully evaluate the implications of each policy and how implementations might impact the IT infrastructure, both positively and negatively. Weigh the benefits and the disadvantages of each method. Consider whether or not a proposed solution causes an interruption to the legitimate users and how it might bring security at the expense of preventing a perfectly legitimate activity. Required Resources None Submission Requirements Format: Microsoft Word Font: Arial, Size 12, Double-Space Citation Style: Chicago Manual of Style Length: 1Ã¢â¬â2 pages Due By: Unit 6 Self-Assessment Checklist I have defined an effective LAN-to-WAN, Internet, and Web surfing AUP. I have evaluated the implications of each policy. I have carefully considered the benefits and disadvantages of each policy enforcement control. I have proposed strong ideas for acceptable and unacceptable resource usage. Unit 6 Assignment 1: BCP, DRP, BIA, and Incident Response Plan Mix and Match Learning Objectives and Outcomes You will strengthen your understanding of details regarding a business continuity plan (BCP), disaster recovery plan (DRP), business impact analysis (BIA), and an incident response plan. Assignment Requirements In this assignment, you are provided with a handout on the major elements that are part of a BCP, DRP, BIA, and incident response plan. You must properly align the elements with their corresponding plans. Required Resources Worksheet: BCP, DRP, BIA, and Incident Response Plan Mix and Match Submission Requirements Format: Microsoft Word Font: Arial, Size 12, Double-Space Length: 1 page Due By: Unit 7 Self-Assessment Checklist I have correctly matched all the elements with the plans. Unit 6 Assignment 2: Quantitative and Qualitative Risk Assessment Analysis Learning Objectives and Outcomes You will be able to analyze real-world scenarios and perform a quantitative risk assessment and a qualitative risk assessment by performing proper calculations. Assignment Requirements In this assignment, you are provided with a handout on a quantitative risk assessment and a qualitative risk assessment. Go through the scenarios given in the handout and answer the questions. Required Resources Worksheet: Quantitative and Qualitative Risk Assessment Analysis Submission Requirements Format: Microsoft Word Font: Arial, Size 12, Double-Space Length: 1Ã¢â¬â2 pages Due By: Unit 7 Self-Assessment Checklist I have correctly calculated the values for Single loss expectancy (SLE), Annual rate of occurrence (ARO), and Annual loss expectancy (ALE). I have determined the effectiveness of the safeguard of buying insurance. I have determined whether or not Richman should buy the insurance. I have supported my choice with an explanation. I have correctly calculated the risk level of each of the risk given in the scenario. I have correctly prioritized the given risks. I have created an effective risk matrix for the given scenario. Unit 7 Assignment 1: Select Appropriate Encryption Algorithms Learning Objectives and Outcomes You will learn how to select the appropriate encryption methods and techniques for real-world business applications. Assignment Requirements In this assignment, you are given a handout which contains a list of the common encryption algorithms and five scenarios. Match the common encryption algorithms with real-world business applications and the requirements for given different scenarios. Give justification for your selections. Required Resources Worksheet: Select Appropriate Encryption Algorithms Submission Requirements Format: Microsoft Word Font: Arial, Size 12, Double-Space Length: 1 page Due By: Unit 8 Self-Assessment Checklist I have selected the appropriate encryption algorithms and the methods for the given scenarios. I have justified the selections I have made. Unit 7 Assignment 2: Design an Encryption Strategy Learning Objectives and Outcomes You will learn how to design an enterprise encryption strategy. Assignment Requirements In this assignment, you are given a handout that contains the scenario of Richman Investments which needs an enterprise encryption strategyÃ¢â¬âa public key infrastructure (PKI) that supports internal employees, external business partners, and clients. You need to design the enterprise encryption strategy for Richman Investments. In your design, include the following: Select appropriate encryption algorithms and methods. Identify and justify the selection of encryption solutions that support internal employees, external business partners, and clients. Required Resources Worksheet: Design an Encryption Strategy Submission Requirements Format: Microsoft Word Font: Arial, Size 12, Double-Space Citation Style: Chicago Manual of Style Length: 1Ã¢â¬â2 pages Due By: Unit 8 Self-Assessment Checklist I have selected the appropriate encryption algorithms and methods. I have identified and justified my selection of the encryption solutions that support internal employees, external business partners, and clients. Unit 8 Assignment 1: Network Hardening Learning Objectives and Outcomes You will learn the essentials of network hardening for a given network layout. Assignment Requirements In this assignment, you are given a handout which contains four different network layouts. Your instructor will assign one of the four layouts to you. For your layout, you are required to devise at least three strategies for hardening the network environment throughout the seven domains of a typical IT infrastructure. Support your decisions with your justification. Required Resources Worksheet: Network Hardening Submission Requirements Format: Microsoft Word Font: Arial, Size 12, Double-Space Length: 1Ã¢â¬â2 pages Due By: Unit 9 Self-Assessment Checklist I have identified at least three network hardening strategies for the given network layout. I have given the justification for my decisions. Unit 8 Assignment 2: Network Security Applications and Countermeasures Learning Objectives and Outcomes You will learn how to determine where certain security countermeasures apply across the seven domains of a typical IT infrastructure. Assignment Requirements In this assignment, you are given a worksheet that contains a list of network security applications and countermeasures. You need to identify where they belong, within the seven domains of a typical IT infrastructure and what confidentiality, integrity, and availability (CIA) function they provide. Complete the worksheet and submit to your instructor for evaluation. Required Resources Worksheet: Network Security Applications and Security Countermeasures Submission Requirements Format: Microsoft Word Font: Arial, Size 12, Double-Space Length: 1Ã¢â¬â2 pages Due By: Unit 9 Self-Assessment Checklist I have accurately placed security countermeasures within the seven domains of an IT infrastructure. I have identified the portions of the CIA triad affected by specific security countermeasures. Unit 9 Assignment 1: List Phases of a Computer Attack Learning Objectives and Outcomes You will learn how to identify the activities that occur during each phase of a computer attack. Assignment Requirements In this assignment, you need to pretend to be ethical hackers who need to protect their organization from a computer attack. List the general phases of a computer attack. Thinking like an attacker, you should add items to each phase that an attacker would consider when performing a successful computer attack. You can refer to the textbook for this course. Required Resources Textbook: Fundamentals of Information Systems Security Submission Requirements Format: Microsoft Word Font: Arial, Size 12, Double-Space Citation Style: Chicago Manual of Style Length: 1Ã¢â¬â2 pages Due By: Unit 10 Self-Assessment Checklist I have identified at least three phases of a computer attack. In my answer, I have included the factors the attackers take into consideration when targeting computers or networks. Unit 9 Assignment 2: Summary Report on a Malicious Code Attack Learning Objectives and Outcomes You will learn how to mitigate the threat of a virus or malware attack. Assignment Requirements Select a well-known virus or malicious code attack, and write a summary report explaining what kind of malicious attack it was, how it spread and attacked other devices, and how it was mitigated. Indicate how you would defend the attack from recurring on a network you control. You may use the Internet for research. Consider the following: The severity of the outbreak The propagation methods and speed The targets of the attack The success rate of the attack vector Additional complexity: self-armoring, self-updating, and so on The ways to defend infection in every domain The ways to defend intrusion at every layer Required Resources Internet Submission Requirements Format: Microsoft Word Font: Arial, Size 12, Double-Space Citation Style: Chicago Manual of Style Length: 1Ã¢â¬â2 pages Due By: Unit 10 Self-Assessment Checklist I have included the following in my summary report: The type of malicious attack How it spread and attacked other devices How it was mitigated I have specified details on how to defend the attack from recurring on a network. Unit 10 Assignment 1: Examine Real-World Applications of Security Standards and Compliance Laws Learning Objectives and Outcomes You will learn to relate a well-known standard or law to real-world applications. Assignment Requirements In this assignment, you are given a handout on security standards and compliance laws. The handout contains a list of international and domestic information security standards and compliance laws. You need to select one and describe its real-world applications in both private and public sectors. Required Resources Worksheet: Examine Real-World Applications of Security Standards and Compliance Laws Submission Requirements Format: Microsoft Word Font: Arial, Size 12, Double-Space Citation Style: Chicago Manual of Style Length: 1Ã¢â¬â2 pages Due By: Unit 11 Self-Assessment Checklist I have correctly described real-world applications of the chosen standard or law. I have included examples in both the private and public sectors. Unit 10 Assignment 2: Small- to Medium-Sized Business Analysis Learning Objectives and Outcomes You will learn how to apply the Payment Card IndustryÃ¢â¬â¢s Data Security Standards (PCI DSS) standard to a small- to medium-sized business. Assignment Requirements Meager Media is a small- to medium-sized business that is involved in the sale of used books, CDs/DVDs, and computer games. Meager Media has stores in several cities across the U. S. and is planning to bring its inventory online. The company will need to support a credit card transaction processing and e-commerce Web site. Write a summary report detailing what Meager Media must do when setting up its Web site to maintain compliance with the PCI DSS standard. Obtain a copy of the PCI DSS standards document from the following Web site and address all 6 principles and 12 requirements in your report: https://www. pcisecuritystandards. org/security_standards/pci_dss. shtml (accessed September 14, 2010) Required Resources Internet Submission Requirements Format: Microsoft Word Font: Arial, Size 12, Double-Space Citation Style: Chicago Manual of Style Length: 3Ã¢â¬â4 pages Due By: Unit 11 Self-Assessment Checklist I have presented a detailed plan for creating a PCI DSS-compliant Web site. I have addressed all 6 principles and 12 requirements of the PCI DSS. Project Security Domains and Strategies Purpose This project provides you an opportunity to apply the competencies gained in various units of this course to identify security challenges and apply strategies of countermeasures in the information systems environment. Learning Objectives and Outcomes You will learn the purpose of a multi-layered security strategy. You will understand the information systems security (ISS) fundamentals including the definition of terms, concepts, elements, and goals. You will incorporate the industry standards and practices with a focus on the confidentiality, integrity, availability, and vulnerabilities of information systems. You will fulfill the role of a security professional implementing proper security controls in a specific business situation based on Systems Security Certified Practitioner (SSCPÃ ®) Common Body of Knowledge domains. Required Source Information and Tools To complete the project, you will need the following: 1. Access to the Internet to perform research for the project 2. Course textbook 3. (ISC)2 SSCPÃ ® Common Body of Knowledge available in the SSCPÃ ® Candidate Information Bulletin Project Logistics The project is divided into one smaller and one major assignment as per the details below: Activity Name Assigned Due By % Grade Project Part 1. Multi-Layered Security Plan Unit 1 Unit 2 6 Project Part 2. Student SSCPÃ ® Domain Research Paper Unit 2 Unit 11 15 Deliverables Project Part 1 Multi-Layered Security Plan Introduction The components that make up cyberspace are not automatically secure. This includes cabling, physical networks, operating systems, and software applications that computers use to connect to the Internet. There is a raging information security war. The goal is to protect national security and business information. Therefore, IT is in great need of proper security controls. Scenario Richman Investments is a mid-level financial investment and consulting firm. The Richman corporate headquarters is located in Phoenix, Arizona. Currently, there are eight branch offices in: Atlanta, Georgia Chicago, Illinois Cincinnati, Ohio Denver, Colorado Los Angeles, California Montreal, Canada New York City, New York Washington, D. C. Tasks You are a networking intern at Richman Investments. This morning, you received an e-mail from your supervisor stating that you need to create an outline of the general security solutions planned for the safety of data and information that belongs to the organization. You are told that every month, the networking division needs to submit a report to the senior management about the security plan for the month, and this time, your outline will become a part of that report. Therefore, you need to research the elements of a multi-layered security plan and to create an outline. Your outline should indicate one or more general security solutions for each of the seven domains of a typical IT infrastructure. For this project part, you may use the book for this course and the Internet to research the concept of a multi-layered security plan. Include several applicable layers for the plan, and describe at least one layer of security for each of the seven domains. Project Part 1 should be submitted in the following format and style: Format: Microsoft Word Font: Arial, Size 12, Double-Space Citation Style: Chicago Manual of Style Length: 1Ã¢â¬â2 pages Self-Assessment Checklist I have included several applicable layers for the plan. I have described at least one layer of security for each of the seven domains. I have conducted adequate independent research for the report. Project Part 2 Student SSCPÃ ® Domain Research Paper Introduction The (ISC)2 SSCPÃ ® is frequently viewed as the first step in an information security career path, leading to the Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSPÃ ®) and other advanced certifications. Scenario Continuing the Richman Investments scenario explained in Part 1 of the project, the offices have a total of 5,000 employees, and the office technology inventory includes desktops, mobile computers, and wireless devices. There is a mix of computers running Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7, and Mac OS X. Most of the managers have BlackBerry devices for instant communication, and all employees are provided cell phones. A Windows Active Directory forest with domains is set up for each office, and seven file and print servers are located in the Phoenix office. The Phoenix office also contains two proxy servers, configured as an array, that provide Web cache services and Internet access control for the organization. The majority of applications are Web-based and hosted from the Phoenix office. The Phoenix office has an Internet connection to all the remote offices, and the redundancy is extremely important to the company. There are several sensitive applications that all offices use. The management from each office shares application information that is hosted at the corporate office for accounting and reporting purposes. All employees have Internet access. There is no policy on the use of removable media. Several of the branch offices have encountered issues with malware recently. Richman hosts an intranet for employees to access information about the company and to enroll in company benefits programs. Richman also hosts an extranet for its business partners. Due to many recent technology and process improvements within Richman, the corporate security policy is out of date, and each branch office policy differs. Tasks You are a networking security intern at Richman. You have been asked to submit a proposal to Richman senior management. In the proposal, you must choose to address one of the following and relate it to the appropriate SSCPÃ ® domains: 1. Based on the premise that Richman has 5,000 employees throughout the main office and several branch offices, you must research solutions and detail the appropriate access controls including policies, standards, and procedures that define who users are, what they can do, which resources they can access, and which operations they can perform on a system. 2. Based on the premise that most of the managers have BlackBerry devices for instant communications and all employees are provided cell phones, you must research and detail the cryptography methods to protect organizational information using techniques that ensure its integrity, confidentiality, authenticity, and nonrepudiation, and the recovery of encrypted information in its original form. 3. Based on the premise that there is a mix of computers running Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7, and Mac OS X, you must research and devise a plan to thwart malicious code and activity by implementing countermeasures and prevention techniques for dealing with viruses, worms, logic bombs, Trojan horses, and other related forms of intentionally created deviant code. 4. Based on the premise that all employees have Internet access to browse the Web, there is no policy on the use of removable media, and several of the branch offices have encountered issues with malware recently, you must research and formulate a plan to implement monitoring and analysis. You must determine system implementation and access in accordance with defined IT criteria as well as how to collect information for identification of and response to security breaches or events. 5. Based on the premise that Richman hosts an intranet for employees to access information about the company and enroll in company benefits programs, and that Richman also hosts an extranet for its business partners, you must research and devise a method to secure networks and communications. This should include the network structure, transmission methods and techniques, transport formats, and security measures used to operate both private and public communication networks. 6. Based on the premise that the Phoenix office contains two proxy servers configured as an array, which provide Web cache services and Internet access control for Richman, and that the majority of applications are Web-based and hosted from the Phoenix office, you must assess risk, response, and recovery. Conduct a review of the implementation processes essential to the identification, measurement, and control of loss associated with uncertain events. 7. Based on the premise that the corporate security policy is out of date and each branch office policy differs, you must research and define security operations and administration including the identification of information assets and documentation of policies, standards, procedures, and guidelines that ensure confidentiality, integrity, and availability. You need to write the proposal as detailed in the instructions above. Be sure that you create a professional, well-developed proposal with proper documentation, grammar, spelling, and punctuation. In addition, document the vulnerabilities, methods, and controls effectively. Project Part 2 should be submitted in the following format and style: Format: Microsoft Word Font: Arial, Size 12, Double-Space Citation Style: Chicago Manual of Style Length: 4Ã¢â¬â5 pages Self-Assessment Checklist I have created a professional, well-developed proposal with proper documentation, grammar, spelling, and punctuation. I have successfully identified appropriate SSCPÃ ® domains and related them to the scenario. I have documented the vulnerabilities, methods, and controls effectively. I have conducted adequate independent research for the proposal.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
Gone are the days, when you had to wait for days or even hours to learn about news of some distant place an event taking place in one part of the world can be heard easily in the other. Perhaps, synchronization of such magnitude has really close-knitted this world together so much that it appears as a real single universal community comprising of different people. Thanks to technological improvements and the information revolution, the awareness is escalating rapidly; there are no more barriers between countries. Trade has increased and population movements between countries are greater than ever before. The term Ã¢â¬Å"global villageÃ¢â¬ is used to describe a world in which people are not limited by the boundaries of nations and societies. The world today is largely interdependent and an occurrence in one part of the world has a bearing on other elements. Thus, today no one in the world can survive in isolation. The world has become integrated and undergone dramatic changes thanks to the rapid changes in technology and faster movement of information technology. The advent of printing press, telephone and telegraph connected millions of people living miles apart and made it possible to discuss new ideas instantaneously. Radio, internet and television brought the digital age into our living rooms. Satellite communications has had a tremendous impact on our lives and resulted in the increased penetration of mobile services, media and live telecasts. With the click of a button, we can tune into breaking news and entertainment from all over the world. An improvement in transportation has also facilitated the exchange of ideas and people. People are able to travel more easily and travel all around the world. Today, it is common to find people commuting from one city to another for work. In fact many people choose to migrate to a new country in search of better work and social life opportunities. New generation of fuel-efficient trains, planes and other modes of traveling have helped develop the tourism industry. The growth of this industry resulted in the exchange of cultures, knowledge and new ideas for greater progress and harmony. As the world has become shorter in distance, people have found it easier to trade and share the fruits of progress. Businesses all around the world are actively engaged in importing and exporting items to capitalize on each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s strengths and pass on the benefits to the consumer. Although, the world has come a long way in becoming more accessible and connected in terms of information, it is still far away from the idealistic situation. To call it truly a global village we must ensure that all regions of the world grow at a uniform pace and a more humane behavior is inculcated in members of different communities and regions. Without this, the world would seem alien to people from the areas lagging behind in progress. Internet: In the 21st century, Internet has been widely used by everyone around the world, and is closely related to our everyday life. The development of Internet has made our world smaller. For instance, like Skype this kind of online free telephone saves our money, we no longer need to worry about our expensive phone bills. It draws people from different places in the world closer. The most significant thing is that it has a positive influence on us, and that people are more willing to keep in touch or communicate with others who are far away from them. Internet has made our world into a global village, it draws everyone closer. Internet can have lots of positive influence on us IF we use it correctly. We can use it to share our works online, or we can search for lots of useful information that we need. However, if we use Internet incorrectly, it will then have a negative influence on us. For instance, going out with someone you met on the Internet without knowing who they actually are. Also, the existence of Internet crime syndicate can be a negative influence on us, like some people might want to be like them because they make lots of money. The most common negative influence of Internet on us is that lots of students got addicted to online games, blog, etc. Thus they are not concentrated in their school works, not doing their job as being a student. Also, wasting more time with Internet as a replacement for of what they are believed to do. It is not only students who are like that; some office workers also got negative influence by Internet. Globalization: Globalization gives the people many motivations for serving poor countries: compassionate, supporting, and political and financially. The reason for which many countries have to help poorer ones may be a question of global security. Due to the interconnectedness of the societies, difficult situations such as conflicts, famines in poor countries influence and jeopardize the security in rich countries like the United States and the European Union. As a result, the troubles of the poor and emergent nations become the dilemma of the urban and wealthy nations of the world. The threats are multiple such as terrorism, trafficking, environmental destruction and disease. As these threats are impending, governments of developed countries take more responsibility for helping the poorer nations for a safer world. Security of the richer and developed nations is based on the development of these poor nations. Improved and up-to-date technology is coming in from developed nations to the developing nations this helps in improving quality of the products made in these countries and it also helps improve constant effectiveness. Though globalization has its positive facets it has some downsides to it. Billions of inhabitants still live in shortage and the space connecting rich and poor at an international level is getting bigger. It is said globalization directs to subordinate buy and sell barriers but the previously poor and developing states are not able to take benefit of the lessening of these trade obstacles, globalization in a way presents urbanized nations with a means of access way to come in hooked on the developing nations with more simplicity and also do trade more freely, it essentially forces out the confined competition for they are not able to gather up with the principles of the products of the urbanized nations. Globalization brings in products that are superior is quality and low in cost as compared to those produced by these developing nations which are not able to produce similar to these, this takes away trade opportunities from these developing nations which was otherwise possible between the developing nations. This leads rising the affluence gap among the urban and mounting inhabitants even more. Internet made the world a Ã¢â¬Å"Global VillageÃ¢â¬ : Globalization, a rising experience that can be illustrated as a Ã¢â¬Å"change in the direction of a more incorporated and mutually supporting worldÃ¢â¬â¢s financial systemÃ¢â¬ , (Valeria Gennaro Lerda, 2002) has been the focus of numerous books and deliberations for the long-ago decade. Along with the improvement of microprocessors, the Internet is conceivably the most momentous technological modernization of our time, playing an extensive role in the development of globalization. The Internet assisted the development of the movement headed for a global village through the formation of cheaper, quicker and easier means of communication, the stipulation of an enormous collection of information, and the increase of e-commerce. The Internet offers a cheaper, more rapidly and easier technique of communication, a substitute that has shaped a Ã¢â¬Å"universal audienceÃ¢â¬ , as stated by Renato Ruggiero, director general of the World Trade Organization. (Seoul 1997) In evaluating the cost of extended distance phone calls against that of online voice chat the Internet is much more reasonable and also better in excellence. Many web clients now acquire web cameras, microphones, and all the software compulsory to sustain this hardware. This permits users to talk, see, and be seen by the individual they are having a dialogue with. People from Asia can carry discussions with Europeans, Americans or Africans at the similar time, at no additional cost on Msn Messenger, Yahoo Messenger, or MIRC. Communication is also quicker online. An e-mail is mailed and expected by the other party in seconds, as contrasting to regular mail, which may take months to accomplish its destination when sent over the ocean. Thus, citizens all over the earth can reside in touch on a normal basis, converse online on a daily basis and even share documents. When factoring in the easiness of use of the Internet, it is simple to observe why so many persons have a preference communicating this way. All that is mandatory is typing, an ability easily mastered throughout frequent use of the keyboard. Also, the Internet provides an interesting communication with another individual, as ample of illustrations and things and emoticons go together with the software. The affordability, tempo, and handiness of the Internet are the reasons that account for the formation of this Ã¢â¬Å"global audienceÃ¢â¬ . People all over the world are associated to the same association at the same time with the right to use to the same collection of information. This enormous amount of information being accessed by everyone connected to the Internet is in itself a powerful tool in the development of globalization. Anybody can produce a website and put pen to paper no matter what portion of information they aspire. Books, magazines, newspapers, and editorials are shared globally. Video clips, PowerPoint presentations and various materials can be viewed online and used for different purposes. This creates a form of optimistic multiculturalism, where any person with the right to use to the Internet can communicate local, ethnic, religious, and national beliefs to a worldwide and international audience. Consequently, an all-purpose homogenization or Ã¢â¬Å"internationalizationÃ¢â¬ of traditions took place, supporting Western urbanized homelands, their verbal communication and principles, yet escorted by an understanding of a consequential strength or evaporation of confined and underground civilization. This worldwide diffusion of dominant Western and American cultures who are globalized through ownership of production and infrastructure gives Ã¢â¬Å"globalizationÃ¢â¬ a negative connotation often termed hegemony, cultural imperialism, or Americanization by members of underdeveloped countries and by individuals who feel that their country and belief systems are threatened by English-speaking nations. The paradox of global localization is also created when local identity politics becomes a global issue through the Internet. Thus, more and more Ã¢â¬Å"local identity groups are using the technologies of globalization to promote their political interestsÃ¢â¬ . An example is the Taliban in Afghanistan with a website, www. talibanreunited. com, containing alleged terrorist information. Thus, as Benjamin Barber mentioned, Ã¢â¬Å"the world is becoming more and more divided into two cultural, political, and economic camps: homogenized transnational consumerist capitalism now extended to global information, communication, and entertainment and fragmented tribal identity wars by groups rejecting transnational and international influencesÃ¢â¬ (Barber, 1996). This consumerist capitalism is in part driven by e-commerce. E-commerce, a huge element of the globalization observable fact, now comprises a familiar dealing practice. The Web permits production, both little and outsized, to get bigger as a global occurrence at a subordinate cost than ever before. Business can sell their goods and services online cheaper, as the tertiary step in production is eliminated. Consequently, companies acquire a superior worldwide coverage by setting up a business website with the arrangement of products presented, cost, and resources of acquisition. The Internet allows companies to gain access to large international markets, build a wide customer base, and generate more revenue. Financial transactions that take place over the Internet requiring credit card information and other sensitive data require an effective implementation of security measures. To prevent loss and interception of data by a third party, encryption of sensitive information, a very complicated process involving keys, data encryption algorithms and various standards, must be put in place. The minimize the threat of viruses, loss or destruction of vital data, antivirus software must be installed and updated on a regular basis, also a backup of important files must be made. The Web formulates it a lot easier for customers and brokers to come across each other, everywhere they may be positioned and no matter what their size. This was the case for an undersized California-based establish, Cardiac Science, which constructs defibrillators and heart monitors. In 1996, Cardiac Science was very restless to smash into intercontinental marketplace but had slight idea of how to set up an international occurrence. By 1998, the business was advertising to clients in 46 countries and overseas transactions accounted for 85 percent of its $1. 2 million revenues. Even though a part of this trade was developed all the way through export channels, an increasing proportion of it came from Ã¢â¬Å"hitsÃ¢â¬ to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s website, which, according to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s CEO, Ã¢â¬Å"creates a center of attention of international business citizens like bees to honeyÃ¢â¬ (Hill, 2004). Therefore, the Internet has proven to be the most significant and fastest growing technical innovation today. In 1990, smaller quantity than 1 million consumers was associated to the Internet. The number had increased to 50 million, by the year 1995. In 2001, it raised to 490 million. By the year 2005, it is forecasted that the Internet may have over 1. 12 billion users, which is comparable to 18 percent of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s inhabitants (Miniwatts Marketing Group, 2008). The notion of a Ã¢â¬Å"global villageÃ¢â¬ is becoming a reality more so than ever and the Internet played a significant role in its expansion. The inexpensive, fast and easy means of communication it provides, coupled with the medium it creates for optimistic multiculturalism, where everyone has access to the same pool of information and is free to share personal beliefs, have created a global audience, where everyone knows exactly what is going on everywhere in the world and is free to communicate at any time. E-commerce takes the Internet from the consumer level and advances it to allow financial and business transactions to take place between businesses and consumers and businesses to businesses without a middleman, and without having to go to the store to buy goods. Web sites like for instance Amazon and e-bay and have become very popular for their cheap products and convenient shipping. Taking these factors into consideration, the Internet had a very large impact on globalization and will continue to shape the growing Ã¢â¬Å"global villageÃ¢â¬ for years to come. Conclusion: With the volatile enlargement in Internet links worldwide, networked communication has the prospective to reduce the size of geographic distances and smooth the progress of information trade among citizens of various surroundings. Telecommunications strategy in the US and other countries determines to extend access to all levels of society, assuming that this will foster greater information exchange while enhancing financial growth. Authorized by information technology such as search engines and automatic filters, IT clients are spending more of their waking hours hooked into the Internet, deciding to work together with information foundations modified to their individual benefits. No longer limited to resources or friends in their geographic areas, these users portend an interactive world without limitations. The distances between places have been reduced and the internet has played a major part in it especially through the fast paced communication it provides. Due to this communication has become so easy that you can find out what is happening in one part of the world by just a click of a button. People are able to reach the flung areas of Africa and get news from there; places which people did not even know existed. Internet has played a major role in promoting globalization. It has reduced the distances and brought the world closer. Read more: Invention Essay
Saturday, September 28, 2019
The WARN Act and Notice of Termination - Essay Example Ultimately, a criminal indictment was filed by the DOJ. At first, the indictment was sealed, meaning private, and Arthur Andersen continued a vigorous defense. There was some negative publicity and some rather minor business losses; however, the indictment was later unsealed and Arthur Andersen experienced mass client defections and staggering financial losses. At is in this case is a decision by Arthur Andersen to send a notice of termination to 560 employees. In response to these layoffs, many employees joined a class action in Federal District Court in which they alleged that Arthur Andersen violated the WARN Act. The purpose of this Act is to compel certain large employers to provide advance notice to employees, 60 days in this case, when the company plans plant closings or mass layoffs. The plaintiffs, therefore, argued that because the notice provisions of the WARN Act were not complied with, a fact not in dispute, that they were entitled to back pay and other damages. Arthur Andersen conceded the lack of a 60 notice, but argued that they were innocent by virtue of an exception to the WARN Act. More specifically, they argued that they were not required to comply with the notice provisions because they made the decision to lay off employees based on events which were not reasonably foreseeable.
Friday, September 27, 2019
Summary - Essay Example Hedge fund is often depend on the managerÃ¢â¬â¢s expertise, is largely offered as private investment, is structured as limited partnership and often presents a narrow range of investors. Compared to the traditional funds, Hedge funds; have an industry size of $2.6 trillion, it has an absolute return, it has short or long investment, has high strategic complexity, has lower correlation to the market, has leverage, higher turnover, high based on performance, has large minimum investment and a low transparency. Investors are high net worth people, institutional investors and funds of funds managers. For hedge funds, the minimum size of investment is often high and at least 1 million dollars. Investors often seek stable, attractive and non market correlated returns. Pension funds make up 15%, followed by individual funds 30%, endowment 12% percent and corporation 11% (Zimmermann, 2009). Hedge fund strategies cover aids in representing the hedge fund universe that includes event driven, long/short equity, global macro, multi-strategy, emerging markets, fixed income arbitrage, managed future. Event driven strategy helps to exploit pricing that results from corporate events that are often anticipated. Managed futures strategy is also known as commodity trading advisors and is an approach aimed at investing in futures contracts in equity, bond, current market and commodity (Zimmermann, 2009). It utilizes pattern and trend recognition models as well as means reversion. Fund of hedge funds entails investing in another hedge fund. The main aim is the fund, manager and strategy. Some of the key risks to the hedge fund strategy entail poor liquidity, high leverage, lack of regulation, operational risks and lack of transparency (Zimmermann, 2009). CPP is the proportion portfolio insurance which aids in ensuring a hundred percent of the capitals of the investors is protected. CPPI determines the composition of investment
Thursday, September 26, 2019
A Contraversial Issue utilized by George W. Bush during his presidency - Essay Example evel of responsibility by the governments of Afghanistan and Iraq in the terror attacks of 11 September on the U.S., the actions which allegedly caused the invasions in question. First, this discussion will examine the motives postulated by the U.S. for military actions against these sovereign nations. It is the contention of this dialogue as well as the vast majority of the world and, as it now seems, the American public that these actions were patently illegal, immoral and inexcusable. The Ã¢â¬ËWar on TerrorismÃ¢â¬â¢ as it is commonly referred to, is phrase coined by United States government officials and is primarily used to justify the military initiative de jour. It is generally defined as the current conflict between the U.S. and radical Islamic factions. Immediately following and as a reactionary response to the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks on the U.S., President George Bush stated the countyÃ¢â¬â¢s intent to initiate a Ã¢â¬ËWar on TerrorismÃ¢â¬â¢ which he characterized as a prolonged battle against those that would employ terrorist actions along with the nations that enabled them. When the U.S. invaded Afghanistan, legal advisors tied closely to the ideology of the Bush administration within the Justice DepartmentÃ¢â¬â¢s Office advised Bush that the U.S. was not legally bound by the U.N. Charter or international laws with regard to rules of engaging a perceived enemy. These views were echoed by Alberto Gonzales, then White House legal advi sor for the President and now Attorney General of the U.S. He also advised President Bush that he did not have to comply with the Geneva Conventions in the handling of prisoners, or Ã¢â¬ËdetaineesÃ¢â¬â¢ in this war on terror. This opinion, shared by legal counsels to the President, applied to not only those directly affiliated with Al Qaeda but to the entire ruling party in Afghanistan, the Taliban, because, as they argued, Afghanistan was a Ã¢â¬Ëfailed stateÃ¢â¬â¢ (Mayer, 2005, p. 32). The Bush administration chose to follow the
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Jesus & Mohammed Paper - Essay Example In a way, both have presented themselves as messengers of God who came to bring message of hope to the world. However, they differ in the way they presented their messages. Jesus came with full authority as the son of God, to win the world on his side as a representative of God. Mohammed came to deliver the news of God on earth and was not representing God. The differences in teachings have resulted to differences between Christianity and Muslims. Life History Jesus Christ and Prophet Mohammed Jesus was born six hundred years before Prophet Mohammed. He was born of a Virgin Mary and had no biological father. He had no family unlike Mohammed who had married several wives (Hafez.et.al, 2000). During the birth of Jesus, the shepherds were visited by an angel. The angel directed them to the place of birth in Bethlehem, where they took presents to him. It was an extraordinary event which brought people from different parts of the world to witness the birth of the spiritual king. His birth was of significance to the human race because he had come to bring salvation to mankind. On the other hand, the birth of Prophet Mohammed brought favor upon his nurse Halima. He was born during a period of famine but his nurse received abundant favor and her harvest was bumpers. Even her animals produced a lot of milk. The visitors who came to see prophet Mohamed received healing (Hafez.et.al, 2000). ... For example, Jesus is said to have healed many sick people, converted water into wine, fed five thousand people with five loaves of bread and two pieces of fish among other wonders. Jesus taught people how to humble themselves and worship God. He recruited his followers and trained them to spread the gospel to the entire world by preaching the salvation of God. Similarly, Prophet Mohammed introduced Islamic religion on earth. He established his followers and taught them the way of Allah. He taught people how to live righteous life according to the doctrines of Allah. Jesus taught his followers to practice kindness, mercy and love as a way of defeating their enemies. He taught his followers to uphold sanctity of life and respect for God through loving their enemies (Hafez.et.al, 2000). He emphasized on the need of forgiveness of sins and tolerance for one another. According to his teachings, Jesus told his followers never to take revenge against those who wrong them. Mohammed taught h is followers to safeguard their religion through whatever means they could. Jesus was son of God, while Mohammed was a representative of Allah. Jesus death was through crucifixion by the Jews who accused him of profaning the name of God by proclaiming to be the son of God (Hafez.et.al, 2000). Though he died and was buried, he resurrected and ascended to heaven and is said to be seated with his father at His throne. As for Mohammed, he died in the presence of Aisha his wife. Impact of Jesus and Mohammed Death on their Religion The death of Mohammed caused great bewilderment among his followers. This is because; there was no prior arrangement on who would take over the leadership after his death. Two factions the Shia and the Sunni
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Research paper analyzing the writiing style of Stephen King - Essay Example On the one hand, critics question KingÃ¢â¬â¢s writing style as Ã¢â¬Å"The Comic Strip EffectÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"The Disgusting ColloquialismÃ¢â¬ (Hoppenstand and Browne 2). On the other hand, King is also praised for his Ã¢â¬Å"dazzlingÃ¢â¬ storytelling skills (Hoppenstand and Browne 2). Since 1987, most of his novels were chief selections of the Book-of-the-Month Club, which in 1989 made the Stephen King Library, and is dedicated to keeping KingÃ¢â¬â¢s novels Ã¢â¬Å"in print in hardcoverÃ¢â¬ and some were even produced as films, such as The Shining (Badley et al. 1). This paper analyzes KingÃ¢â¬â¢s writing style. KingÃ¢â¬â¢s writing style is described as seeking to terrorize, horrify, and lead his readers to gross-some reactions, which magnifies his use of ethos and pathos, while having logos residing Ã¢â¬Å"between the lines.Ã¢â¬ Stephen King is the King of macabre; he spins stories from Ã¢â¬Å"American nightmaresÃ¢â¬ (Hoppenstand and Browne 2). As the king in this genre, he has ethos or authority in the ghastly dimension of human experiences: Ã¢â¬Å"His work has changed the horror genre and blurred the lines between horror and literary fictionÃ¢â¬ (Dyson and Bloom 5). His ethos conceals the logos of his stories. He writes about stories of real human conditions that not all horror stories touch upon. KingÃ¢â¬â¢s thoughts go beyond the archetypal. His Ã¢â¬Å"popÃ¢â¬ awareness and his campy humor entice the collective unconscious (Badley et al. 4). In Danse Macabre, King stresses the Ã¢â¬Å"cross-pollination of fiction and film,Ã¢â¬ and he categorizes his subject into four Ã¢â¬Å"monster archetypesÃ¢â¬ : the ghost, the Ã¢â¬Å"thingÃ¢â¬ (or human-made monster), the vampire, and the werewolf (Badley et al. 4). He uses references from classic horror films of the 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s and the 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s pulp and film industries (Badley et al. 4). He combines the gothic novel, classical fables, Brothers Grimm folktales, and the oral tradition (Hohne 95). During this time, the characters doubt the myths but need them in their lives; horror is particularly comforting and Ã¢â¬Å"catharticÃ¢â¬ and the narrator marries the roles of physician and priest into the witch doctor as Ã¢â¬Å"sin eater,Ã¢â¬ who takes over the culpability and fear of the culture (Badley et al. 4). As a result, Stephen re-creates old monsters by adding a new sense of mystique. In The Uses of Enchantment: The Meaning and Importance of Fairy Tales (1976), psychologist Bruno Bettelheim stresses that the enchantment and horrors of fairy tales present existential problems in forms children can understand. KingÃ¢â¬â¢s paranormal horrors have comparable cathartic and informative roles for adults; Ã¢â¬Å"they externalize the traumas of life, especially those of adolescenceÃ¢â¬ (Badley et al. 4). Danse Macabre represents the externalization of these traumas, as a way of coping and survival. People have to analyze and read between-the-lines, nevertheless, to understand the themes of survival and adaptation in some of KingÃ¢â¬â¢s novels. King writes to terrorize readers. KingÃ¢â¬â¢s critics say that his success relies on the Ã¢â¬Å"sensational appeal of his genre,Ã¢â¬ which King eagerly confesses, because he writes to Ã¢â¬Å"scare peopleÃ¢â¬ (Badley et al. 4). His fiction is explicit, maudlin, and at times, known for conventional plots (Badley et al. 4). In Carrie, he writes about the opposite of Cinderella. It is the macabre version of dreams that can hardly come true for a society that denigrates women like Carrie. Furthermore, KingÃ¢â¬â¢s humor is frequently unsophisticated and Ã¢â¬Å"
Monday, September 23, 2019
HBS write up - Case Study Example Technological complexity and the expensive nature of licensing in most of the countries serve as a barrier to companies entering the market. Due to these factors, the threat of entry of new firms is minimal for marine harvest (Salmon farming industry handbook, 2014). Substitute products may limit the potential of an established company to create price ceilings. To tackle this problem, the company should be able to differentiate its product or upgrade in some way. A product with many substitutes is susceptible to loss in demand it prices for the products increased due to high elasticity. There is a definite trend in farmed salmon production that indicates an increase in demand for salmon among consumers. Marine Harvest products differ from other protein sources in terms of healthy ingredients and high omega three content. The threat from substitute products is also low because of the efficiency of salmon production. The food per kilogram used in salmon production is small making it more productive than pork, beef, poultry, and bacon (David and Ryan, 2014). In the analysis of substitutes, wild catch of fish is considered. Marine Harvest is not facing competition from wild catch sine most salmon consumers are showing a preference for farmed products. Customers are expressing concern parasites in salmon harvested from the wild. Therefore, the threat of the substitute is considered medium (Salmon farming industry handbook, 2014). Customers that have a high bargaining power are a threat to the profitability of the company they can demand higher quality and even force down the price of salmon. A greater number of customers gives a significant advantage to marine harvest company. So far, the company has established itself creating a large customer base for its products. Marine Harvest distributes its sales to the various regions as shown in the diagram. The distribution channels make it possible
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Literature Review - Coursework Example The current study aims to examine and evaluate various practices and policies on performance appraisal systems and procedures as revealed by diverse authors whose researches have been published in peer reviewed academic journals. This literature review hereby aims to proffer relevant issues that emerge in the subject of performance appraisal. The determination of organizational effectiveness which is the degree to which objectives of an organization are achieved is a cardinal task of management. The contribution of each employee in attaining these objectives is the extent to which one has achieved. Therefore, performance evaluation is the assessment of achievement of objectives. Longenecker and Nykodym (1996) examined the potential benefits of performance appraisals and revealed that the appraisal process serves as a communication tool, a means to increase motivation and productivity, an arena for discussion of future career prospects for growth and development, as a basis for wage a dministration, and as a framework for decision making process relative to human resources concerns. Brown, Hyatt and Benson (2010) likewise validated the ability of performance appraisals in increasing employee performance and productivity through Ã¢â¬Å"greater employee identification with the commitment to objectives of the organization (Brown, et.al, 2010, 377); financial incentives which are contingent on performance (ibid, 378) and through encouragement of retention. Likewise, Eremin, Wolf and Woodard (2010) acknowledged the critical role of performance appraisals in merit based pay system. While eminent advantages are presumed to be realized from performance appraisal systems, some research have divulged the presence of biases due to various factors, to wit: favoritism and politics (Heneman, 2003) and issue of fairness and equity, lack of trust in management, and lack of resources or money for rewards (Eremin, et.al, 2010). On the other hand, supervisors expressed difficulties in handling poor performers as revealed from appraisal reports due to the need to exercise objectivity in identifying performance problems (Daley, 2008). Management support was likewise another factor stated by Daley (2008) as precluding plans for performance improvement. Further, the time consumed to address performance problems tend to neglect other pressing responsibilities. The need for performance appraisals and evaluation, despite issues of biases and difficulties in application and in addressing poor performers, was deemed relevant and worthy by both managers and employees (Longenecker & Nykodym, 1996). The challenging issues that face organizations is designing an appropriate and effective performance appraisal system free from biases and serves clearly identified goals. Brown (et.al, 2010) is a function of both performance appraisal procedures and treatment focusing on four indicators: clarity of role and purpose, extent of communication and flow of information, level of t rust the employee has for their supervisor, and fairness throughout the process. As suggested by Eremin (et.al, 2010), biases could be addressed through a closer evaluation of current performance evaluation systems and by increasing the training of evaluators. Longenecker & Nykodym (1996) presented both managersÃ¢â¬â¢ views and subordinatesÃ¢â¬â¢
Saturday, September 21, 2019
John Locke Mind Essay Hume and Lockes conflicting views on the existence of personal identity stem from a fundamental disagreement in regard to memory. According to Hume we have an impermanent personal identity as a result of our constantly changing stream of perceptions. These mental experiences are usually triggered by impressions, or perceptions that involve a sense experience. These constantly changing streams of perception form the false identity. On the other hand John Locke proposes this concept thatÃ says X has identity if the ideas of X cause an observer to have of x are the same at different times. The best capable observer is X themself, as they are there for every moment. For Locke all that is needed for personal identity is mental identity. Both these ideas of personal identity are intertwined with each respected philosopherÃ¢â¬â¢s views on memory. According to Hume, memory is unreliable. He believes projectivism tricks us into forming memories. This is true because Hume also says we canÃ¢â¬â¢t remember everything, but we project as if we do. The reason he imposes this is because he believes it causes us to assume we are the same in our memories as we are now. Hume says our memories are triggered by ideas, or perceptions caused by thinking about an impression, instead of actually experiencing it. These memories at best resemble one another, which means we confuse similar but different impressions of ourselves for an impression of a single unchanging self. Moreover, Hume says we do not have the same ideas as we do now and do in the past. As a result memory gives us false identity with what it remembers. With this, the nature of the human self is derived from these mental experiences. Although Hume maintains that personal identity is falsely assumed by humans, the ideas that arise from our memories are what forms oneÃ¢â¬â¢s identity. The end result of personal identity is that individuals have a false sense of identity, but that this false sense of identity is what gives them their individuality. This whole process is reliant upon memory; hence memory is crucial in the development of the false self and individuality. Contrary to Hume, Locke believes memory is reliable. He insists that we are able to genuinely recall the same memories. Similarly to Hume, Locke agrees we donÃ¢â¬â¢t remember everything. Although he shares this belief, he feels what we do remember is enough. He continues this assertion as he points out we donÃ¢â¬â¢t remember everything accurately but we remember enough accurately. In doing this, we are able to accurately recall past ideas and compare them with present ones. This is how he reaches his point that memory is reliable. SinceÃ our memories are reliable, our ideas in the past and the present can genuinely be the same. For Locke, the nature of the human self is formed through this process of linking old memories to new memories to create similarities. Like Hume, individuality is obtained when this process is complete and with it comes awareness of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s self through time. While Hume and Locke have very differentiating opinions on the conception of personal identity relative to memory, they both agree that the end result will be a unique individual.
Friday, September 20, 2019
Evidence-Based Pressure Ulcer Prevention Pressure Ulcer is commonly experienced by hospitalized adults. This skin condition is otherwise known as bed sores to which the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s skin as well as its underlying tissue breaks down due to pressure caused by prolonged non-movement of the affected skin areas. It provides discomfort to the patient especially to those who have medical conditions, which disable them from changing position. Pressure Ulcer can develop rapidly. However, there are several things that can help in prevention and help the patient in the healing process. The purpose of this paper is to develop a plan as to how the Pressure Ulcer can be prevented based on the evidence presented in the articles including the identified solution to the problem. The change plan will help the development of nursing practice when it comes to Pressure Ulcer and suggests that repositioning and turning the patient constantly will help in preventing the occurrence of this skin condition. Change Plan Using John Hopkins EBP Model Overview The John Hopkins Nursing EBP model or JHNEBP is a framework that is used to guide the translation of gathered evidence into practice (Buchko, 2012). It has encompasses three nursing foundations such as education, practice, and research. Nurses should use this model to as a guide to facilitate change because it includes both non-research and research evidence as they create basis for nursesÃ¢â¬â¢ decision making. Thus, this model also proves that both external and internal factors should be put in consideration before existing nursing practice may be changed. Practice Question Step 1 Recruiting inter-professional team will be composed of nurses, attending physician, and nursing aid. Step 2 The Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) question is Ã¢â¬Å"Do frequent turning of patients lead to reduction of occurrence of pressure ulcers in hospitalized adults?Ã¢â¬ For PICO elements, it is identified that (P) is the hospitalized adults that suffer from Pressure Ulcer; (I) would be the intervention approach of the problem, which is the frequent turning of the patient to prevent or recover from Pressure Ulcer symptoms; (C) is the considered alternative in treating the Pressure Ulcer such as using special cushions and mattresses, which can help in relieving the pressure in affected skin areas; and (O) pertains to the gradual healing of skin tissues that suffered from Pressure Ulcer. Step 3 Pressure Ulcer prevents the patient from a complete recovery as it provides addition pain due to damaged skin tissues. Cases of Pressure Ulcer continue to increase. In fact, Sullivan (2013) says that it increased by 80% between 1995 and 2008. Not only in the hospital, but residents of nursing homes also suffer from Pressure Ulcer and was reported that there was an approximate of 11% case increase in 2004 (Sullivan, 2013). This problem affects the healthcare on a broader scale. It provides additional healthcare facility costs, which may not be covered as it is a hospital-acquired health condition. Thus, the overall nursing practice will be more challenging due to the occurrence of Pressure Ulcer among adult patients. Steps 4 and 5 The team, which is composed of nurses, attending physician, and nursing aid will have their vital roles in achieving the targeted design for change. They are important as they hold different responsibilities. The nurses are responsible for ensuring that existing Pressure Ulcer will not become worse by constant checking the affected skin. The attending physician is responsible for knowing if there would be any other medical implication due to Pressure Ulcer occurrence. He is also responsible for providing additional medication, if needed, besides the existing medical condition. The nursing aid is responsible for providing assistance when it comes ensuring that the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s affected skin areas are well-ventilated through constant repositioning of the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s body. In combining their essential roles and responsibilities, prevention and treatment of Pressure Ulcer will be easier to achieve. Evidence Steps 6 and 7 Ã¢â¬â The change plan is supported by evidence to which the guidelines of handling patients with Pressure Ulcer are presented. Whitney et al. (2006) say that Pressure Ulcer is one of the challenges of health care providers. The change plan plans to prevent the increasing occurrence of such skin condition to which the articles stated that there were almost 3 million patients affected in the United States alone (Whitney et al., 2006). The research encompasses insights from clinical experts as well as their opinion about the problem. Scientific evidence were also presented in the research such as proper patient positioning, nutrition, support surfaces, preparation of wound bed and dressing, and the underlying principles that were developed per category. The researchÃ¢â¬â¢s quality improvement data was presented in a form of various guidelines and nursing principles. One of the strength of this research is its ability to provide detailed guidelines as to how the Pressure Ulcer can be handled accordingly without providing additional sufferings to the patient. It also highlights the principle behind every guideline in order to explain why such guideline must be followed during the treatment process. Steps 8 and 9 Ã¢â¬â The evidence shows that frequent turning of patients will help in the reduction of the occurrence of Pressure Ulcer. There are various articles that presented the similar views and presumptions pertaining to the proper treatment of Pressure Ulcer. Kaitani, Tokunaga and Sanada (2010) suggest that there are risk factors that are related to the occurrence of Pressure Ulcer especially in critical care setting. One of the risk factors may start during the admission stage of the patient. The critical care setting involves medical conditions that will decrease the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to move and change position from time to time. Therefore, it is important to know that at the beginning of admission stage, health care providers must be aware that the occurrence of Pressure Ulcer is high. In fact, almost 40 percent of the patients who suffer from Pressure Ulcer are the ones who are in the critical care setting or intensive care unit (Kaitani, Tokunaga Sanada, 2010 ). The authors concluded that that there is no connection between the occurrence of Pressure Ulcers among patients and the involve medication. Therefore, the frequency of positioning and turning the patient especially in the ICU is a prognostic indicator as to whether Pressure Ulcer will occur. This is also to reduce the probability of extended admission of the patient in the hospital. The redistribution of the pressure is the main goal of repositioning the patient in order to prevent the occurrence of Pressure Ulcer. Sprigle and Sonenblum (2011) assert that such skin condition occurs when there is a constant pressure on the affected skin area. That is why; it is essential to conduct a pressure magnitude management through postural supports and support surfaces as well as proper body posture. This approach can be done through weight shifting and turning frequency including the use of dynamic surfaces (Kaitani, Tokunaga Sanada, 2010). Besides frequent turning, positioning device can also help in distributing the weight of the patient and improving the blood flow on skin surface. Therefore periodic repositioning of the patient combined with the positioning device are two important preventive methods against Pressure Ulcer and ideal supporting treatment procedure for existing Pressure Ulcer. Generally, the standard turning by nurses in intensive care unit or ICU does not consistently unload all the areas of skin-bed interface pressures (Peterson et al., 2010). The standard of handling patients with Pressure Ulcer is to prevent most of the skin areas to be under pressure to avoid tissue damage. However, evidence shows that even with the presence of frequent turning and repositioning is not a guarantee that Pressure Ulcer will not occur as there are still skin areas that are at risk of tissue breakdown (Peterson et al., 2010). Conversely, using the support materials is also not an assurance to prevent the occurrence of this skin condition. Such materials for maintaining the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s turned position may also influence the tissue unloading, which may jeopardized the affected areas. Therefore, it is presumable that there is still a gap between the theory and practice when it comes to Pressure Ulcer management. Moore (2010) says that besides the increased length of stay in the hospital, Pressure Ulcer may also increase the health service costs. However, such condition is preventable through proper management in order to provide strategically-planned health service. One of the strategies that can be used is the 30 degrees tilting of the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s body to avoid too much pressure on the skin (Moore, 2010). Based on the evidence presented, repositioning the patient who is at risk of Pressure Ulcer every three hours using this tilt technique will reduce the possibility of Pressure Ulcer occurrence. Step 10 Ã¢â¬â Based on the gathered evidence, the recommendation to prevent potential Pressure Ulcer is to conduct a constant turning of patient every 3 to 4 hours depending on the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s body weight. The heavier the patient is the shorter the time interval must be applied in repositioning the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s body. Thus, it is also recommended that patients, especially adults in ICU department must use positioning materials if possible. In this case, the bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s weight will be distributed evenly along with the frequent turning technique. It is also recommended to apply the 30 degrees tilt on the patient so that the weight will not produce too much pressure on the skinÃ¢â¬â¢s interface. Thus, the gravity pull will not be focused on the pressured area. Steps 11, 12, 13, and 14 Ã¢â¬â The plan for implementing the change will be based on the steps that need to be followed. Important procedures must emphasize on the implementation stage. This will be followed by the importance of conducting such procedures based on the evidence, which will also be presented. There will be a specified timeline to ensure the smooth transition for old to standard practice to developed change plan. For the first quarter of the year, an initial outcome will be evaluated using statistical reports of occurrence of Pressure Ulcer. A ratio between the number of patients and Pressure Ulcer occurrence will be the basis of quarterly reports, which are targeted to decrease after the fourth quarter. The reports will include the total number of patients within the first three months, patients at risk of the skin condition, and the number of repositioning done in every patient. Steps 15 and 16 Ã¢â¬â The desired outcome of the proposed change is to reduce the occurrence of Pressure Ulcer among adult patients especially in the critical care setting or ICU. It also aims to increase the awareness of techniques on how to apply the recommended strategies of the health care workers. The outcome will be measured based on the reports filed by the nursing staff, which is done separately from the existing medical condition of the patient. The results will be reported to the stakeholders in a quarterly basis, emphasizing how the strategies were conducted and what the specific results were. Step 17 Ã¢â¬â The plan will be implemented on a larger scale to which other units will be included. The plan will primarily start on the intensive care unit for the first quarter and will also be implemented to regular hospital ward after the first three months. To ensure that the plan will be implemented permanently, it will be raised to the office of the director to be one of the standard procedures of the hospital. Therefore, whether or not the patient is in ICU, constant monitoring of potential Pressure Ulcer will be part of the nursing round. Step 18 Ã¢â¬â Findings will be disseminated internally through monthly meetings to provide developments after the implementation. On the other hand, it will be externally disseminated by providing its advantages to other hospitals and healthcare setting. If possible and available, strategies, techniques and findings will be published on the hospitalÃ¢â¬â¢s website to spread awareness throughout the concerned public. Conclusion Pressure Ulcer is an important problem that every health care provider must be aware of. The evidence presented is clear representation that such condition is preventable. Thus, should not be the reason for patients to extend their hospital confinement. The change model will ensure that every involved healthcare professional will be responsible in ensuring that the Pressure Ulcer will be prevented and treated accordingly to those who are already suffering from it. The three levels of change based on John Hopkins EBP process are essential aspects for the implementation of the change plan. Understanding the practice question would be the foundation of the process to which PICO elements will be analyzed for the success of change plan. On the other hand, the evidence will be the basis of the change plan as to how the and why the change plan is needed for the improvement of health service. Thus, the translation is the period to which the implementation will take place. It is essential to have these three levels of change so as to develop a strategic plan of the proposed change. In this case, once the plan has been implemented and permanently practiced, the occurrence of Pressure Ulcer will significantly decrease, which will help in the patient in the treatment process. References Buchko,B.L., Robinson,L.E. (2012). An Evidence-based Approach to Decrease Early Post-operative Urinary Retention Following Urogynecologic Surgery. Society of Urologic Nurses and Associates, 32(5), 260-264. Kaitani,T., Tokunaga,K., Matsui,N., Sanada,H. (2009). Risk factors related to the development of pressure ulcers in the critical care setting. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 19, 414-421. Moore,Z. (2010). Bridging the theory-practice gap in pressure ulcer prevention. British Journal of Nursing, 19(5), s15-8. Peterson,M.J., Schwab,W., Van Oostrom,J.H., Gravenstein,N., Caruso,L.J. (2010). Effects of turning on skin-bed interface pressures in healthy adults. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 66(7), 1556-1564. Sprigle,S., Sonenblum,S. (2011). Assessing evidence supporting redistribution of pressure for pressure ulcer prevention: A review. Journal of Rehabilitation Research Development, 48, 203-214. Sullivan,N. (2013). Preventing In-Facility Pressure Ulcers. In Making Health Care Safer II: An Updated Critical Analysis of the Evidence for Patient Safety Practices. Rockville City, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Whitney,J., Philipps,L., Aslam,R., Barbul,A., Gittrup,F., Gloud,L., . . . Robson,M.C. (2006). Guidelines for the treatment of pressure Ulcers. Wound Healing Society, 14, 663-679.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Harrison Bergeron by Kurt Vonnegut Ã¢â¬Å"The story is a satire, a parody of an ideological society divorced from common sense realityÃ¢â¬ (Townsend). As Townsend stated Kurt Vonnegut makes a satire about society in his fictional short story Harrison Bergeron, which in their society there has been attempt of conformity through the handicaps of the people, the similarity to an authoritarian government, and the technology, whereas the people will eventually overcome. The Kind if government authority seen both mimics and satirizes the way Americans came to see the enemy (the Soviet Union) during the Cold War, which was near its height of distrust and fear in the late 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s and early 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã As an attempt to make the economy better Karl Marx a philosopher thought up the philosophy of Communism. A communist government plans and controls the economy, also has an authoritarian that has total control. Often the authoritarian claims that he will progress toward a higher social order in which the people equally share all goods. Although, the citizens in Harrison Bergeron in the same way Ã¢â¬Å"equal every which wayÃ¢â¬ in the economy but, they are also Ã¢â¬Å"equal every which wayÃ¢â¬ in physical characteristics (Vonnegut). In which the people know that they are unequal and that is why they have the handicaps. A handicap as stated in the Merriam-Webster Dictionary, in a Ã¢â¬Å"race or contest [an] artificial advantage is given or disadvantage imposed on a [person] to equalize chances of winningÃ¢â¬ (Me...
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
George Orwells Shooting an Elephant In George Orwell's essay "Shooting An Elephant," he writes about racial prejudice. Orwell is a British officer in Burma. The author is, "for the Burmese and all against their oppressors, the British"(842). Orwell feels caught in the middle of this cultural struggle. He sympathizes with the oppressed people of India, but is treated poorly, since he is viewed as one of the oppressors. He comes to terms with the role he plays in this vicious cycle of oppression , as an imperial servant, and the influence it has on him to shoot an elephant. The Burmese people are treated as second class citizens in their own country. They are oppressed, by the British empire, that has invaded their land. Being a police officer Orwell sees ...
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Discuss the Success of this Introduction to the PlayÃ¢â¬â¢s Characters and themes. Do you think Willy Russell has successfully made his opening Dramatic and Entertaining? I think that Willy Russell has made the introduction of the play, Educating Rita, dramatic and entertaining because he uses techniques such as: Just two characters Set in just one room Humour Similarities between Rita and Frank Ã¢â¬â both read books, and smoke etc. Similarities between Rita and Willy Russell Ã¢â¬â both from Liverpool, both hairdressers and from working class backgrounds. Educating Rita is a stage comedy written by Willy Russell which premiÃ ¨red at The Warehouse, London, in 1980. The two characters are: Frank Ã¢â¬â an unsuccessful, upper class man who is in his fifties, writes poems and is a university lecturer. He is tired and jaded and has not looked out of his large bay window or looked at his nude, religious picture for about ten years. Frank is an alchoholic who pulls out a book at the beginning of the play and behind it appears a bottle of whisky. He then pours a large slug into a mug. He only works so he can buy more drink. Rita Ã¢â¬â A young 26 year old, working-class hairdresser, who is loud, inquisitive and uses lots of slang Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m cominÃ¢â¬â¢ in, arenÃ¢â¬â¢t I? ItÃ¢â¬â¢s that stupid bleedinÃ¢â¬â¢ handle on the door. You wanna get it fixed!Ã¢â¬ This is the first time Rita speaks and she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t appear to be very formal. Rita lives with her husband Denny but when he finds out that Rita is still on the pill he rips up all her papers and books and burns them and tells Rita that she either gives up her education or she will be forced out of her home and marriage. Rita wanted to get an education first and then look at her options so then she can decide whether or not she wants a baby so, therefore, she decides to have an education. The scene is a room on the first floor of a Victorian-built university in the north of England. Frank decides he needs to earn some extra money, so he agrees to tutor an Open University student who is Rita who has just decided to get an education. RitaÃ¢â¬â¢s entrance to the room is not a normal one; she struggles to get into the room and then the door swings open. As soon as the play starts, we find out that Frank is an alcoholic. He has a bottle of whisky hidden behind some books which he takes a large slug of and before Rita enters he is on the phone. Whilst he is on the phone he mentions the word Ã¢â¬ËpubÃ¢â¬â¢ four times. Then Frank asks Rita who she is and instantly Frank knows how much work he is going to have to put in to get Rita an education Frank: Ã¢â¬Å"You are?Ã¢â¬ Rita: Ã¢â¬Å"What am I?Ã¢â¬ Frank: Ã¢â¬Å"Pardon?Ã¢â¬ Rita: Ã¢â¬Å"What?Ã¢â¬ Frank: Ã¢â¬Å"Now you are?Ã¢â¬ Rita: Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m a what?Ã¢â¬ Later on Frank asks Rita what her name is. She says it is Rita even though her real name is Susan. Frank says that on her admission paper it says Mrs S White. Then Rita tells him that her real name is Susan but she changed it after reading the book Ã¢â¬ËRubyfruit JungleÃ¢â¬â¢ which was written by Rita Mae Brown. Rita wanders around the room a lot noticing the large bay window and the nude picture. She shows that she is inquisitive by asking lots of questions about the nude, religious picture. In this bit Willy Russell adds a bit of humour: Ã¢â¬Å"YÃ¢â¬â¢ donÃ¢â¬â¢t paint pictures like that just so that people can admire the brush strokes, do yÃ¢â¬â¢? Ã¢â¬Å" A bit later on Rita shows her slang language Ã¢â¬Å"He gets pissed anÃ¢â¬â¢ stands in the street shoutinÃ¢â¬â¢ anÃ¢â¬â¢ challenginÃ¢â¬â¢ death to come out anÃ¢â¬â¢ fight. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s dead good. This is totally different from the way Frank speaks for example he says Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s supposed to embrace a more comprehensive studentship, yes.Ã¢â¬ Before this Rita asks if she can smoke and then when Frank asks her if she wants a drink of Scotch she says: Ã¢â¬Å"YÃ¢â¬â¢ wanna be careful with that stuff, it kills yÃ¢â¬â¢ brain cells.Ã¢â¬ Like if you smoke you wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be killing your brain cells. Rita is not very optimistic. Whilst she is looking around the room inquisitively, she picks up a book called HowardÃ¢â¬â¢s End which she thinks is filthy so she borrows it off Frank and says that if she decides to pack the course in she will post it back to him. Ã¢â¬Å"If I pack the course in IÃ¢â¬â¢ll post it to yÃ¢â¬â¢.Ã¢â¬ Frank seems shocked when she says this and starts asking her why she had decided to enrol onto the course in the first place. She thinks the book is written by E.M. Foster when it is really written by E.M. Forster. This is because she sees the brand of lager Fosters so often she assumes thatÃ¢â¬â¢s who the book is by. Rita appears to be very lively and confident but when Frank says that she is asking lots of questions she says that she does when she gets nervous. Rita shows her drink addiction and lack of knowledge again when Frank says: Frank: Ã¢â¬Å"Do you know Yeats? Rita: Ã¢â¬Å"The wine lodge?Ã¢â¬ As soon she hears Yeats mentioned, she immediately thinks of drink again. There is a clash of cultures when Rita was trying to think of someone Frank could have been named after, she says a name that Frank had never heard of Ã¢â¬â Elliot Ness the police man who caught Al Capone but Frank would not no anything him as he is totally oblivious to the world around him. Frank assumed she meant T.S. Eliot and Rita would not know anything about poets. Rita then shows that she is a quick thinker as she says that she tryÃ¢â¬â¢s to sell her customers a wig when she messes up peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s hair. Rita presumes that Frank is the kind of man that would watch documentaries whereas Rita watches light-hearted programs such as ITV. However of course, Frank wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t watch TV. Towards the end of the scene Rita seems to be very determined to keep Frank as her tutor. This is different to earlier in the play when she was saying that she would post the books back to Frank. In conclusion, I believe Willy Russell has made Act 1 Scene 1 dramatic and entertaining by the use of humour, comparisons and the similarities between himself and Rita.
Monday, September 16, 2019
Crime is the product of the social structure; it is embedded in the very fibres of society. In this essay, I aim to explore different theories as to why crime exists within society and how we as a society therefore construct it. Crime is a social construct; it is always in society and is on the increase. It is inevitable. Where does it come from? It comes from legislation, from the making of laws. Functionalists see crime deviance in society as a function, in that it serves to remind us, through public condemnation of those who have broken the rules, of our shared values and norms. Furthermore, they suggest that crime is a result of structural tensions and a lack of moral regulations within society. If the aspirations held by individuals and groups in society do not coincide with the available rewards, this disparity between desires and fulfilment will be felt in the deviant motivations of some of its members. This was the basis for MertonÃ¢â¬â¢s Anomie theory. (Robert Merton 1957) Emile Durkheim saw crime and deviance as social factors and believed both of them to be inevitable and necessary elements in modern society. The people in that society are less constrained than in traditional times. There is more room for the individual choice in a modern world and it is therefore inevitable that there will be some non-conformity. Durkheim recognises that no society would ever be in complete consensus about the norms and values which govern it. He also saw that it was necessary for society in that it fulfils two important functions. Firstly, deviance is an adaptable function, and by introducing new ideas and challenges in society, it brings about change. Secondly, deviance promotes boundary maintenance between good and bad behaviours. It constantly keeps us aware of what acts society deems acceptable or not. (Durkheim 1964) The Positivist approach is simply about a deviantÃ¢â¬â¢s reaction to external forces beyond their control. The followers of the Interactionist theory, on the other hand, reject this positivist approach and say that it is due to the internal factors of the individual. The Marxism theory however, is structured towards the accumulation of wealth rather than social need. Edwin H Sutherland was the first sociologist to study this area known as Ã¢â¬ËWhite Collar CrimeÃ¢â¬â¢ in 1949. Let us now look at crimes of the powerful and the less powerful. There are two main points; deviance is a product of unequal power relations and equality in general. Despite the fact that the law is in favour of the dominant class, some of its members do break the rules for their own gain. Power and equality affect the quality of deviant acts. Thus, people that are more powerful are more likely to engage in profitable deviant acts such as corporate crime i.e. bribery and corruption in business and politics, misconduct by professionals such as lawyers etc. On the other hand, the powerless are more likely to commit less profitable deviant deeds such as burglary, theft and armed robbery. (Ermann and Lundman 1996) Power, or rather social class, is therefore the key element which determines the type of deviance people are likely to carry out. The powerful are more likely to commit deviant acts because of something that is called Ã¢â¬ËRelative DeprivationÃ¢â¬â¢. This is the feeling of being unable to achieve the high standards they set for themselves, compared with the powerless, whose standards are typically low. Their aspirations are so high that they become less achievable. The more that people experience this Relative Deprivation, the more likely they are to commit deviant acts. (Cookson and Persill 1985) Furthermore, the elite have more legitimate opportunities than the poor worker to commit crime i.e. A banker will have better opportunities to defraud customers for instance, and because of his status, the crime is less likely to be detected, whereas the poor worker would probably have to resort to robbing the bank, a much more visible crime. Furthermore, the powerful are subjected to weaker social control. They have more influence in the making and enforcement of control. The laws against higher status crime, the White Collar crime, are therefore relatively lenient and rarely enforced, but the laws against crime which is committed by those with a lower status, are harsher and more often enforced because they are so visible and detected much more easily. The activities of White Collar crime occur on a daily basis, but there is no public outcry or moral panics about it and thereforeÃ no legislation made, whereas, Ã¢â¬ËstreetÃ¢â¬â¢ crime attracts massive law enforcement. As Jeffr ey Reiman (2001) so aptly stated, Ã¢â¬Å"The rich get richer and the poor get prisonÃ¢â¬ . Interactionism was quite popular from 1960s to 1970s. Max Weber and George Herbert Mead favour the Interactionist approach and suggest that crime is a social process, that crime is an interaction between the victim, the police/officials and the offender. Crime is shaped by the nature of this interaction and this selective labelling, stigmatisation, negative labelling of those without power and more vulnerable. This approach focuses upon the interaction between deviance and those who define it as such, hence the Labelling Theory. Howard F Becker, the founder of this theory, argues that society creates deviance by making rules. Rules that when broken, constitute deviance, and by labelling those particular people as deviants, they are also labelling them as outsiders. Therefore, it is not the act of the person, but rather a consequence of applying the rules by others to an offender. Deviant behaviour is behaviour that people so label. Becker suggests that in one sense there is no such thing as a deviant act. An act only becomes deviant when people define it as such, when they label it as such. Such labels largely override their status as workers, friends, parents etc and others see them negatively. This Ã¢â¬ËlabellingÃ¢â¬â¢ of people who commit crime, often results in the denial of an ordinary life to them, and because of this denial, out of necessity, they develop illegitimate routines and often resort to a life of crime. Thus, a criminal career is formed and the only way that they can be a part of society, is by grouping with likewise people, and being part of a different type of society. It may be a criminal society, but at least they fulfil that human need to belong. This process results in what is known as the self-fulfilling prophecy i.e. a person is to be known as a criminal, he/she may as they may as well act that way. The Feminist approach is critical of the mainstream approaches in that they see them as male dominated and this gender bias is part of the structure ofÃ the Criminal Justice System, the majority of its personnel being male. Crime is specific to the gender, males being more violent and women committing softer crime such as benefit fraud, shoplifting etc. This approach sees that there is a need for more support and resources for women and that anti-sexist training is necessary in the police force. These sociological theories are intended to apply to both sexes but feminists disagree. For example, MertonÃ¢â¬â¢s anomie theory assumes that people are inclined to strive for material success, which is true for men but not necessarily for women, although this is on the increase. (Merton 1957) In the past women have been socialised differently to men. They are traditionally less interested in achieving material success as their place has been in the home. However, this social construct is changing, because women are being given more equal opportunities, and are more likely to strive for that material success, which would account for some increase in womenÃ¢â¬â¢s crime rates. (Chesney-Lind 1997;Daly and Chesney-Lind1998) This may be an indication that opportunities for women are still far from equal. Anomie theory may apply if this is the case, as the opportunities available to women are lacking in relation to womenÃ¢â¬â¢s increasing desire for independence and material success, therefore causing the disparity that Merton talks about. Furthermore, men and women calculate the risk of arrest differently. Women are more aware of that risk and that awareness becomes a disincentive. Another interesting argument would be that it is a fact that over 90% of people convicted of crime, are male. (John Hagan et al 1996) Let us now examine how time and space has affected the way that society has constructed crime and deviance. For example, is the death penalty an act of murder? It is in some countries, but not in some US states. Is abortion an act of murder? What about war? Murder exists in some contexts as a crime and not in others. Crime then is a social construct which is ever changing according to time and space. It makes no sense to say that Ã¢â¬Å"crime is a result of biochemistry onlyÃ¢â¬ because crime is the result of political decision making, and we can easily change those decisions according to different contexts, without changing our own biochemistry. In an effort to solve the Ã¢â¬Ëcrime problemÃ¢â¬â¢ then, our task is to determine how much of Ã¢â¬Ëthe crime problemÃ¢â¬â¢ is in fact the result of these definitions and political decisions, and what part is the result of broader sociological or biological forces. The government, in its efforts to tackle the Ã¢â¬Ëcrime problemÃ¢â¬â¢, has little regard for the way that working class people and their environments actually work. Its new measures to be tough on the causes of crime fail to question why these things happen, and hence how they might be prevented. Creeping inequalities in education, the health services, housing and pensions, contribute to the lack of belonging that people feel. This disconnected feeling of our seemingly society-less age can only contribute to the Ã¢â¬Ëcrime problemÃ¢â¬â¢. It is time to review other methods because the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s endless clamping down on those who already have the least stake in Ã¢â¬ËsocietyÃ¢â¬â¢ is not the solution. BIBLIOGRAPHY Bilton T, Bonnet K, Jones P, Skinner D, Stanworth M, Webster A (1996) Introductory Sociology (Third Edition) London, Macmillan Press Ltd. ` Goode E, Ben-Yehuda N (1994) Moral Panics: The Social Construction of Deviance USA, Blackwell. Hagan John et al 1996 The Law and Politics Book Review http://www.unt.edu.lpbr/subpages/reviews/HaganJ.htm Accessed on 28 11 2002 Haralambros and Holborn (1995) Sociology: Themes and Perspectives (Fourth Edition) London, Harper Collins. Reiman Jeffrey (2001) The Law and Politics Book Review http://Paulsjusticepage.com/reiman.htm http://Paulsjusticepage.com/RichgetRicher/fraud.htm Accessed on 28 11 2002 Taylor P, Richardson J, Yeo A, Marsh I, Trobe K, Pilkington A, Hughes G, Sharp K (1995) Sociology in Focus Ormskirk, Causeway Press Ltd. Williamson J (2000) Tough on Horridness Ã¢â¬â Guardian http://society.guardian.co.uk/crimeandpunishment/comment/0,8146,839659,00.html Ã¢â¬â accessed on 28 11 2002