Saturday, August 31, 2019
Reconstruction By: 9/9/2013 1. Columbian historian Eric Foner (1983) quotes W. E. B. Dubois in calling reconstruction a Ã¢â¬Å"splendid failure (p.16).Ã¢â¬ After studying the events of late 19th century, defend whether or not you agree with his position. What are the long-term implications? In my opinion the one of the largest mistakes that was made was the amount of racism that still continued in America. Still to this day there is a large amount of racism in America, the only difference is it is not just between white and blacks. When it comes to racism for some reason it seems all races and all people canÃ¢â¬â¢t just get along. Growing up in the south I have seen this first hand. The problem is now if there is any kinds of disagreement between races it is blown way out of proportion. A small example would be the Travon Martin case. This case should of not had half of the publicity it did, but because it was a crime that was white on black people took it as a hate crime. The problem in my opinion is it w as not even white on black and half of America still seems to think it was. When people get something in there heads they are going to put their own Ã¢â¬Å"twistÃ¢â¬ on what they think happened and it will cause things to get out of hand. I believe the Emancipation Proclamation was intended to be the right step in fixing a problem. The problem still existed because even when it comes to law officials there is racism to this day. I have seen police officers that treat people that are not the same race as them differently because that is the way they were raised. That to me is something that is unacceptable, if you are a police officer or a person in a similar position and they still are using race to make decisions it creates more problems in the first place. On the other side some people attempt to use their race to benefit themselves because they are a minority. I went to school with a young African American that was picked on because of the color of his skin, he was new to our school and was moved into our school because his school was flooded when a hurricane came and flooded his school. Some students saw a chance to pick on someone because they were different, they talk, look, and act different than others. I saw this happening and became friends with him because I do not believe in this at all. Another studentÃ that came in wanted to play sports and thought he was the best player on the field. He did not make the team and he filed a complaint with the state of North Carolina saying the reason he did not make the team was because of his race. He was then transferred from our school to be given a chance to play somewhere else. To me this was someone trying to take advantage of their race in a negative way simply because the student did not get his way to begin with. 4. Identify one significant leader in the Populist movement and give a brief synopsis of this personÃ¢â¬â¢s contributions, failures, and successes in bringing about the ideas of populism Ã¢â¬Å"In 1890 Populists won control of the Kansas state legislature, and Kansan William Peffer became the partyÃ¢â¬â¢s first U.S. Senator. Peffer, with his long white beard, was a humorous figure to many Eastern journalists and politicians, who saw little evidence of Populism in their states and often treated the party as a jokeÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"1890Ã¢â¬ , 2000). Western and Southern Populists gained a large amount of support even though the other parties felt this way. Populists presidential candidate, James B. Weaver actually was able to win over one million votes. Because of fraud, intimidation, and violence by the Southern Democrats the party still failed to make any further gains. One of the largest pieces of success was the party being officially founded because of the merger of the FarmersÃ¢â¬â¢ Alliance and the Knights of Labor. Because of all the negative things going on because of the Democrat and Republicans all going against the Populist party it made it very hard to continue this party and keep it functioning. Ã¢â¬Å"Two main factions had appeared. One, the fusion Populists, sought to merge with the Democrats, using the threat of independent organization to force changes in the major partyÃ¢â¬â¢s platform. The Populist organization in Kansas had already Ã¢â¬Å"fusedÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬âover the bitter protest of those who considered this a sell-out. Fusionists argued that the regionally based third party could never hold national power; the best strategy was to influence a major party that couldÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"1890Ã¢â¬ , 2000). The Second faction was called Ã¢â¬Å"mid-roadersÃ¢â¬ and suspected that Democratic leaders wanted to destroy the third-party threat. The Populists party also wanted to schedule the national convention before the Republican and Democrats were able to hold theirs. This would be a fight that was lost and they would have to hold their meeting after the major-party meetings. In my opinion the larger parties where using their size and power to make it very difficult for the Populists party to stay in tact and eventually got what they wanted when it was done away with. The Populists began serving more as a symbol for the Republicans and their nomination that the Populists put through would even begin to ignore the party even though they were the ones who nominated him. Reference 1890. (2000). Retrieved from http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/populists.html
Friday, August 30, 2019
The answers to these questions emerge more from the doing than the talking. Briefly, close reading is a basic tool for understanding, taking pleasure in, and communicating oneÃ¢â¬â¢s interpretation of a literary work. The skills employed in close reading lend themselves to all kinds of cultural interpretation and investigation. Close reading takes language as its subject because language can operate in different ways to convey meaning. Reading sensitively allows one to remain open to the many ways language works on the mind and heart. When an assignment calls for close reading, itÃ¢â¬â¢s best to start by choosing a brief but promising passage and checking your assumptions about its content at the door. Close reading often reveals the fissures between what the speaker or narrator says and how she or he says it. You know from your own experience that life involves constant, often unconscious sifting of these nuances. Here are some useful steps. 1. Choose a short passage that allows you to investigate the details closely. Here, for example, is the first paragraph of Jane AustenÃ¢â¬â¢s Northanger Abbey, Chapter 2. In addition to what has already been said of Catherine MorlandÃ¢â¬â¢s personal and mental endowments, when about to be launched into all the difficulties and dangers of a six weeksÃ¢â¬â¢ residence in Bath, it may be stated, for the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s more certain information, lest the following pages should otherwise fail of giving any idea of what her character is meant to be; that her heart was affectionate, her disposition cheerful and open, without conceit or affectation of any kindÃ¢â¬âher manners just removed from the awkwardness and shyness of a girl; her person pleasing, and when in good looks, prettyÃ¢â¬âand her mind about as ignorant and uninformed as the female mind at seventeen usually is. This single sentence will give us plenty to work with. 2. Look at diction. What kinds of words does Austen use? Does she aim for lofty diction (used for special occasions) or common diction? Are the words long or short, Latinate or Anglo-Saxon, specialized (i.e. legalistic, medical, jargon, elite) or ordinary? Remember that the rules for diction are different at different times in history. 3. Next, look at sentence structure. Can you map the sentence (find the subject and verb, locate phrases and clauses)? Is it a simple, compound, or complex sentence? How does the structure of the sentence relate to its content? Does the author use active or passive verbs? What rhythms does the sentence structure createÃ¢â¬âlong flowing ones, short choppy onesÃ¢â¬âand how do these relate to the meaning? 4. After you have looked at language (and there are other technical issues one might pay attention to), you can begin to analyze tone. Is the narrator being straightforward, factual, open? Or is she taking a less direct route toward her meaning? Does the voice carry any emotion? Or is it detached from its subject? Do you hear irony? Where? If so, what complications does the irony produce? 5. At this point, you may discover some difference between what the author appears to be doing (giving you a complete, unbiased picture of her character) and what she also accomplishes (raising doubts about whether these qualities are worth having, whether her character is a heroine after all, whether women have minds at all, therefore whether this narrator can be trusted at all, etc.). You can now begin to talk about the ways AustenÃ¢â¬â¢s language, which seems to invite our confidence, is also complicating its message by raising these doubts. 6. At this point, you can propose a generic hypothesis, something like, Ã¢â¬Å"In this passage, Austen raises doubts about Catherine MorlandÃ¢â¬â¢s character through her use of deliberately banal diction, her strained sentence structure, and her ironic use of the terms of character description for heroines.Ã¢â¬ 7. You can proceed to fill in the outlines of this point by explaining what you mean, using details and quotations from the passage to support your point. 8. You still, however, need an argument and will need to go back to your opening to sharpen the thesis. The question is Why? Or to what effect? Your thesis might build on what youÃ¢â¬â¢ve already written by suggesting: Austen creates this irony early in the novel to alert the reader to the ways sheÃ¢â¬â¢s subverting narrative conventions. Or: The effect of this description of Catherine is to undermine any notion of her powers as a heroine and to introduce AustenÃ¢â¬â¢s theme that true character emerges from weakness rather than strength. Or: AustenÃ¢â¬â¢s cavalier treatment of her heroine suggests that she has little respect for the typical education of young women. 9. Even with these more developed statements, you will need to explain and support your point further. But you will have achieved some very important things, namely: 1) you have chosen a specific piece of the text to work with, hence avoiding huge generalizations and abstractions that tend to turn a reader off; 2) you have moved from exposition (explaining whatÃ¢â¬â¢s thereÃ¢â¬âand really, shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t a reader be able to figure these things out for him or herself?) to arguing a point, which will involve your reader in a more interactive and risky encounter; 3) you have carved out your own reading of the text rather than taking the more well-worn path; 4) you have identified something about AustenÃ¢â¬â¢s method that may well open up other areas of the text for study and debate. Bravo! 10. With your more refined thesis in place, you can go back and make sure your supporting argument explains the questions youÃ¢â¬â¢ve raised, follows through on your argument, and comes to a provocative conclusion. By the end, you may be able to expand from your initial passage to a larger point, but use your organization to keep the reader focused all the way. The most exciting thing for a reader, and the most useful for an essayist, is that close reading generally offers surprises. Your project is not so much about telling readers what they probably can see for themselves but what they might have missed that could delight them. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s helpful, then, to go into the paper with an open mind and be ready to adjust your thesis to the evidence you find in the text. Have a blast!
Thursday, August 29, 2019
professional users and sells them through its own technical representatives and mobile franchise dealers. The global manufacturer would be company L because they would have higher selling, general and administrative costs, in this case 38. 9 compared to 24. 8. The company with the specialized tools from mobile franchise would have higher cost of goods sold, in this case 61. 0 compared to 51. 6. Retail Both companies are large discount retailers. One company carries a wide variety of nationally advertised general merchandise.The other company is a rapidly growing chain of upscale discount stores and has partnerships with several leading designers. The company with partnerships with the designers is company M because it has intangibles of 9. 0 compared to the general merchandise discount company which has intangibles of 0. 6 making it company N. Newspapers One company is a diversified media company that generates most of its revenues through newspaper sales around the country and aroun d the world.The other company owns a number of newspapers in small communities and this company has significant goodwill on its balance sheet. Company O is the company that owns a number of newspapers as they have intangibles of 76,8 compared to company P, which is the world newspaper company and has intangibles of 37. 1. Health ProductsBeer ABCD Accounts Payable9. 82. 2Stockholders' Equity16. 572. 9 Inventory turnover3. 080. 93Current Assets11. 281. 7 Intangibles22. 246. 1Cost of Good Sold53. 938. 5 SG expense44. 546. 7Cash & ST investments1. 455. 6 SG expense17. 350. ComputersBooks & Music EFGH SG expense9. 723. 1SG expense16. 921. 8 Intangible Assets01. 2Depreciation1. 13. 7 Inventory21. 3Inventory14. 838. 6 Accounts Payable38. 318Cash & ST Investments54. 816. 2 Current Liabilities60. 933. 3Quick Ratio00. 46 Inventory Turnover13. 562. 42 PaperTools IJKL Intangibles14. 61. 9SG Expense3948. 4 Cost of Goods Sold6151. 6 Receivables Turnover18. 923. 7 RetailNewspaper MNOP Intangibles9 0. 6Intangibles76. 837. 1 Receivables Turnover24. 516. 7SG Expense2339. 7 Net Fixed Assets14. 134. 6 Stockholders' Equity62. 535. 5 Financial Detective professional users and sells them through its own technical representatives and mobile franchise dealers. The global manufacturer would be company L because they would have higher selling, general and administrative costs, in this case 38. 9 compared to 24. 8. The company with the specialized tools from mobile franchise would have higher cost of goods sold, in this case 61. 0 compared to 51. 6. Retail Both companies are large discount retailers. One company carries a wide variety of nationally advertised general merchandise.The other company is a rapidly growing chain of upscale discount stores and has partnerships with several leading designers. The company with partnerships with the designers is company M because it has intangibles of 9. 0 compared to the general merchandise discount company which has intangibles of 0. 6 making it company N. Newspapers One company is a diversified media company that generates most of its revenues through newspaper sales around the country and aroun d the world.The other company owns a number of newspapers in small communities and this company has significant goodwill on its balance sheet. Company O is the company that owns a number of newspapers as they have intangibles of 76,8 compared to company P, which is the world newspaper company and has intangibles of 37. 1. Health ProductsBeer ABCD Accounts Payable9. 82. 2Stockholders' Equity16. 572. 9 Inventory turnover3. 080. 93Current Assets11. 281. 7 Intangibles22. 246. 1Cost of Good Sold53. 938. 5 SG expense44. 546. 7Cash & ST investments1. 455. 6 SG expense17. 350. ComputersBooks & Music EFGH SG expense9. 723. 1SG expense16. 921. 8 Intangible Assets01. 2Depreciation1. 13. 7 Inventory21. 3Inventory14. 838. 6 Accounts Payable38. 318Cash & ST Investments54. 816. 2 Current Liabilities60. 933. 3Quick Ratio00. 46 Inventory Turnover13. 562. 42 PaperTools IJKL Intangibles14. 61. 9SG Expense3948. 4 Cost of Goods Sold6151. 6 Receivables Turnover18. 923. 7 RetailNewspaper MNOP Intangibles9 0. 6Intangibles76. 837. 1 Receivables Turnover24. 516. 7SG Expense2339. 7 Net Fixed Assets14. 134. 6 Stockholders' Equity62. 535. 5
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Brora Scottish Cashmere - Article Example It is a privilege to be writing an article on this personally beloved, globally renowned Cashmere brand. Victoria Stapleton who is the founder, owner and creative director at Brora, was brought up in the North of England, which is home to the Scottish cashmere industry. Having lived so close to the hub of the cashmere industry Victoria often found herself in the mills, as she Ã¢â¬Å"spent many childhood hours browsing mill shops and feeling the delicious quality of their cashmereÃ¢â¬ . In 1990 when her family got involved with Ã¢â¬ËHunters of BroraÃ¢â¬â¢, a 100 year old tweed mill, Victoria jumped at the opportunity to get involved and was soon managing the mills retail venture. Having been brought up in an entrepreneurial family she knew that she wanted to have her own business one day. The experience of working in a mill and gaining knowledge of how a business is run Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦sowed the seeds for the founding of BroraÃ¢â¬ . Victoria began her entrepreneurial career by o pening a retail outlet in London and now, Brora has expanded its outlets all over the UK, the most recent being opened in Cambridge, Covent Garden and Westbourne Grove in London. Brora is a retail company that strongly follows the philosophy of Ã¢â¬ËBuy BritishÃ¢â¬â¢. ... e clothing manufactured by the company is produced in mills which are situated in the UK, using only the finest raw materials and carefully selected yarn from selected herds. Being a private and democratically run company not only builds a strong relationship with the customers that Brora caters to but also with the suppliers and employees that are associated with the company. Brora has a strong culture of workmanship & camaraderie within the company. People who work there donÃ¢â¬â¢t often leave, primarily because the company is socially responsible towards its workers. There is a true-to-the-word democratic process involved in all core decision making efforts and this practice of mutual consultation is not only confined to the insides of the organization, in fact every customer is treated as part of the family. Brora claims that every customer is a friend & thus, should be treated like one, Ã¢â¬Å"The Company is run personally and democratically and this ethos extends to our custo mer, who becomes a good friend with whom Brora has a relationship, built on honesty & trust.Ã¢â¬ The clothing collection at Brora offers a variety of beautiful and luxurious products for women, men, children and babies, all available in a various materials for everyone in the family. The company is dedicated to producing affordable clothing for every age group, where each collection is dynamic with a wide variety of colors and designs to choose from. No matter what piece of clothing or accessories you choose, it will give you a luxurious and stylish aura. It is vividly evident that each clothing collection is a result of VictoriaÃ¢â¬â¢s love for the arts and the natural beauty of the Scottish landscape, which offers her a vivid palette to work with; Ã¢â¬Å"When I want a focused day of inspiration, I do love
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Life Span Development - Research Paper Example Children go through many physical and emotional changes and these years play a very important role in the lives of individuals as its effects last for the rest of the life. According to Erik EriksonÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of socio-emotional development, a person develops skills, self-esteem, confidence, a sense of responsibility, and learns about love and family values (Rosenthal, Gurney, & Moore, 1981). By the time a person reaches young adulthood, a person focuses more on interpersonal relationships and looks for a partner to commit to, which increases a sense of belonging. Erikson calls this stage Intimacy vs. Isolation (Rosenthal, Gurney, & Moore, 1981). A study concludes that romantic love in young adults consists three main factors: connectedness, attraction, and painful love (Seiffge-Krenke, Shulman, & Kiessinger, 2001). The relationship of a person with parents, the marital status of parents, and a number of other factors related to different stages of development have a significant effect on the romantic love of young adults (Seiffge-Krenke, Shulman, & Kiessinger, 2001). Selecting a life partner is one of the most important decisions of young adults and has a significant influence on the life of a person. Social Penetration is a term used to define relationships that move from liking to greater closeness and intimacy (Altman & Taylor, 1973).
Why men's basketball is better than women's basketball - Essay Example Basketball has from its very beginning, been a male dominated sport and this has continued to be the case to the present. While this is true, women have also come to join in the sport, with the creation of a womenÃ¢â¬â¢s basketball league among other competitions for women. I am of the opinion that the basketball played by men is still more popular because it has a greater following. I would agree with the statement that menÃ¢â¬â¢s basketball is better than that of women because of several factors. Among these if the fact that womenÃ¢â¬â¢s basketball is predictable and that women tend to be more careful and are expected to behave in a civilized manner. WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s basketball is one of the most predictable sports today and this is because they tend to be extremely careful and cautious when playing. They tend to shy away from taking any risks and do not do as much to impress and entertain the fans as male players do. The predictability of the womenÃ¢â¬â¢s game can be seen th rough the data available that shows that in all the years that womenÃ¢â¬â¢s basketball has been recognized, only a handful of their teams have reached the finals. I would say that even before the game begins, the fans always know which team is going either to win or to lose.
Monday, August 26, 2019
Car industry - Essay Example choosing cars is because the automotive industry forms the economic sector that is most symbolic of the modern times as well as the environmental consequences of modernity. The effect of the automobile, as well as the auto-centered transport system on U.S.Ã¢â¬â¢s ecology and the world over has been large. From the production process to its end of life, automobiles consume resources; pollute land, air and water in addition to transforming space. The production of cars needs collecting many quantities of metals, plastic, glass and rubber plus other materials, and then assembling tens of thousands of vehicles through machine and human labor (McGranahan & Murray 2012, p. 45). This process of production itself uses gigantic amount of energy, plus the factory output creates its own range of pollutants. Once the automobile is on the road, they are the main consumers of gas and oil, which stimulates deeper drilling, transporting plus refining of petroleum products so as the meet the increasing demands. Because the internal combustion engine still dominates automobile propulsion, vehicles give out huge volumes of pollution in form of noise, air emission, disp osable parts and used oil (Melosi n.d., p. 1). Scrapped or derelict vehicles pile up once vehicles conclude their productive lives. Beyond their roles as artifacts and polluters, cars have transformed towns and the entire country more than any other technology ever created by human beings. In spite of their dramatic effect, the ecological history of automobile is hard to depict (Gasana et al., 2012, p. 36). This is because, over the years, vehicles have be considered both as a benefactor and also a threat, as a advantage to freedom, individualism and liberation and as the bane of contemporary society. By the turn of the 20th century what had only been a technical curiosity, a noise-belching menace to humans and a rich manÃ¢â¬â¢s plaything, started to gain acceptance (Melosi n.d., p. 1). Optimists touted the automobile as a
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Using Relationship Marketing to Improve Customer Relations - Dissertation Example The current dissertation aims to investigate the customer relationship marketing strategies of Marks and Spencer following its rebranding efforts. The main objective of the research is to allow a comprehension of the changes that had occurred among customersÃ¢â¬â¢ attitudes towards the brand. Both primary and secondary research data shall be used in accomplishing the following objectives of the dissertation: Determine and investigate the target audience being catered to by Marks and Spencer; Discuss the competitive environment in which M & S plays in; Assess the competitive edge of the company as a global brand through a customer relationship survey. The researcher concluds that Marks & Spencer should leverage more on its customer relationship marketing strategies, particularly convenience, being a strong global bran, and competitive cost. Moreover, in drafting its next branding strategic plan, it should aptly consider the following factors which are deemed improvement areas (lowes t scoring items): ambience of the store and personalised service. On the other hand, it may leverage more on its highest scoring items, namely, promotional offers, being a strong global brand, competitive cost and convenience. The results propose that customers have a very obvious recognition of the overall brand image of Marks & Spencer as a clothing company. More specifically, the company was perceived to have a clearly focused position within the UK retail clothing market and to be successful in communicating their brand to customers.
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Literary Analysis - Essay Example Spayde (1998) further adds that formal training is a vital necessity, however power and class simultaneously plays significant role in the sector of education. For instance, the graduates from world class universities like Stanford and Harvard would be offered the designations at workplace to prepare the work schedules for those who have acquired their degree from a not so famous, regional college. The eminent journalist and novelist, Earl Shorris (Spayde, 1998, p.67) realized the flaws of the modern educational system and took initiative for starting up an Ivy League adult education course which was meant for the Ã¢â¬Å"Asians, whites, blacks and HispanicsÃ¢â¬ (p.67). On the first day of his lecture, Shorris (Spayde, 1998, p.67) addressed his students and let them know that Ã¢â¬Å"humanitiesÃ¢â¬ is not just a subject to be studied by the Rich strata of the society. The term Ã¢â¬Å"HumanitiesÃ¢â¬ embraces the entire world and its people. The concept of humanities teaches the students how to live, how to think and how to enjoy life. The subject enriches the readers by providing them a new perspective towards life. Spayde (1998) further recognizes several misconceptions about the term Ã¢â¬Å"educationÃ¢â¬ . He states that Ã¢â¬Å"trainingÃ¢â¬ at a local computer school is an option considered suitable for the poor Americans. However technical training inevitably tur ns out to be obsolete after a few years. Spayde (1998) argues that Ã¢â¬Å"educationÃ¢â¬ is nothing but a dialogue which carries different meanings for different societies. The present concept of education is merely making the students suitable for fighting the Ã¢â¬Å"global competitivenessÃ¢â¬ but Spayde (1998) states that despite of possessing specialized skills, these contemporary graduates lack Ã¢â¬Å"intellectual breadthÃ¢â¬ (p.68) which can only be learnt by the practice of humanities. The professor of environmental studies of Oberlin College defines the recent trend of
Friday, August 23, 2019
The Importance of Entrepreneurship and Enterprise in the UK - Essay Example ameters which tend to change continuously, however when all appropriate preparation has been made, entrepreneurship can lead to a significant development of the commercial market involved. However, in order to ensure the success of their efforts, entrepreneurs should try to follow strictly the principles of the commercial market avoiding risk in cases that there are no limits for the achievement of a particular plan. The existence of alternative plan of action has to be considered as necessary in order for the entrepreneurship to survive on a long term basis. Entrepreneurship should be considered as a fundamental activity that helps the market to be developed. However, in order for this activity to lead to positive outcomes it is necessary that the participants (entrepreneurs) follow a specific plan of action which has to be characterized by the thorough analysis of the market, the appropriate design of strategic plan and the rapid reaction to the opportunities appeared. Of course in any case the existence of risk creates a series of uncertainties for any potential entrepreneurship. But if all appropriate steps of action are followed they are little chances for the entrepreneurship to end up to a failure. This paper examines the characteristics of entrepreneurship as a unique commercial activity and tries to identify all the appropriate Ã¢â¬ËqualitiesÃ¢â¬â¢ of a good entrepreneur as they can be observed both in the field of theory but also in practice. For this reason, the relevant literature review has been followed with a few examp les of successful entrepreneurs in UK as they have been evaluated and awarded in a relevant awarding scheme involving entrepreneurial activities in UK. Entrepreneurship has been defined through a variety of terms in order to respond to the needs of the market as they have been observed by theorists throughout years. At a first level, Thornton (1999, 19) refers to entrepreneurship as Ã¢â¬Ëthe creation of new organizations which occurs as a
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Policy of North Korea Essay Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (DPRK or North Korea) is considered to be one of worldÃ¢â¬â¢s most closed and isolated countries in the world. After the breaking up of the two Koreas in 1945, they emerged on the world map as Democratic PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Republic of Korea and Republic of Korea. Families divided and one culture and value system sustained on both sides of the border, yet hostilities between the two countries marred their relations and international peace. US dumped its nuclear arsenal in South Korea which eventually led to a deterioration in situation. Russia opted to support North Korea in the ensuing years which led to international deadlocks. Being surrounded by great powers, the escalating tension and ensuing events took shape of global events that affected the whole world and changed the policies of super powers. The subsequent ambitious nuclear goals of Pyongyong had to be curtailed and this is what has kept the region in lime light ever since. ClintonÃ¢â¬â¢s Policy towards North Korea The policies of Bill Clinton regarding North Korea were recently criticized by Republican presidential candidate Senator McCain. He said while referring to the then in the race democratic candidate for presidency Hillary Clinton Ã¢â¬Å"the framework agreement her husbands administration negotiated was a failureÃ¢â¬ . Senator McCain was quoted as saying this and a lot more while defending the policy of Bush administration regarding North Korea. He said that the aid North Korea received under ClintonÃ¢â¬â¢s policy was subsequently diverted to the up gradation of their military and nuclear program. Reversely there are many who support ClintonÃ¢â¬â¢s policies and criticize Bush administration for not adequately following up on negotiation with North Korea and ignoring the issue while focusing more on Iraq, Afghanistan and war on terror in general. Observers however, noted that the Agreed Frame work has been a success as North Korea abided by the freeze. ClintonÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy was supported by many others as well who contended that the agreement had resulted in progress. Reviewing ClintonÃ¢â¬â¢s Policy towards Democratic PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Republic of North Korea and the dynamics that played a major role in this regard it will be noted that initially President ClintonÃ¢â¬â¢s policy towards North Korea was a bit aggressive but it gave way to a general consensus of cooperation and negotiation. Few extracts from the paper Ã¢â¬Å"The Mouse that Roared? ClintonÃ¢â¬â¢s Foreign Policy towards North KoreaÃ¢â¬ are given below. Ã¢â¬Å"During the Clinton presidency, US foreign policy towards North Korea started with conflict with the nuclear crisis and ended with cooperation by beginning diplomatic normalization. North Korea did not change its foreign policy; it remained aggressive in its anti-American rhetoric and actions. Therefore, why was there a foreign policy change from conflict to cooperation towards the Democratic PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Republic of Korea during the Clinton administration? Some scholars will argue that there was no or little change in foreign policy. However, there are some differences that are puzzling and do not fit the standard mold of foreign policy formation. High politics involving security and power should not mix with low politics like peace and economic prosperity, but they do in the case of the DPRK. The DPRK is a closed state that few completely understand, and this would usually lead to more cautious and protectionist policies. Instead, the US became more cooperative, and this needs explanation. The factors that led towards foreign policy change are divided into two themes. The first theme is that Clinton became a supporter of the Democratic Peace Thesis (DPT) and incorporated these ideas into his foreign policy. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦, the second theme is that Congress reasserted itself as a major actor in foreign policy matters and became more supportive of cooperation. The checks and balances of the American political system did not apply to the Ã¢â¬Å"1994 Agreed Framework Between the United States of America and the Democratic PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Republic of KoreaÃ¢â¬ (Agreed Framework). It was a document that Congress had to support even though Senate did not have to ratify it. Ã¢â¬ (Jane Kim, 1, 2). American government has always had issues and concerns regarding North KoreaÃ¢â¬â¢s military ambition, especially its nuclear program and the American government thought the long impending predicament was resolved when during the Clinton Regime United States and North Korea signed the Ã¢â¬Å"Agreed FrameworkÃ¢â¬ on 12 August, 1994. The framework proposed a three step process according to which North Korea agreed to freeze its plutonium weapon program and in return American government promised to progress towards stabilized economic and diplomatic relations and will provide North Korea two proliferation-resistant nuclear reactor. Afterwards the Clinton regime also initiated talks with North Korean government in Berlin and later in New York as well to confine its ballistic missile program but no concluding agreement could be reached in the end. United States also imposed sanctions on North Korea for missile proliferation activities and for the transfer of missile technology and its components. Quite a large number of Congressmen did not approve of ClintonÃ¢â¬â¢s foreign policy towards North Korea and also the fact that the Agreed Framework was the root of the USÃ¢â¬â¢s North Korean policy. It is evident from the congressional documents that Congress was reluctant to accept the Clinton governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s diplomatic and peace-centered negotiations with North Korean regime and tolerant approach towards North Korea. Similarly many Congressmen were also not in accord with applying Democratic Peace Theory for defining US policy governing relationship with North Korea. Members of Congress were in favor of placing economic sanctions on North Korea. Although after both the governments concurred on the Agreed Framework, ClintonÃ¢â¬â¢s Policy was accepted reluctantly, but this did not stop Congress from trying to wield influence on American foreign policy. In 1998, President Clinton also assigned former Secretary of Defense William Perry the task to carry out an enhancement of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s policy towards the North Korea. William Perry immediately undertook an interagency review of U. S. policy toward North Korea and began discussions with South Korea and Japan focusing on creating a combined approach to deal with the issues at hand. The following Perry Report led to the pave the final phase of ClintonÃ¢â¬â¢s North Korean policy. With the lukewarm support of Congress, Clinton continued to peacefully engage North Korea in talks and negotiations, and the United States of America reduced its economic sanctions against North Korea. During this time, Clinton government successfully involved North Korea as well as South Korea and Japan in the peace talks while exchanges of officials between the two countries continued to decrease tensions. US inspectors visited North Korean nuclear plants and United States also promised to cooperate with North Korea in economic affairs as well as for the peaceful uses of nuclear technology but after the 2000 election and the consequent change in the White House ClintonÃ¢â¬â¢s North Korean policy ended abruptly. Post-2001 American Policy for North Korea American policy for DPRK underwent a complete change after President George W. Bush took oath of the office in January 2001. Shortly before President George W. Bush declared his intent to completely review the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s policy towards DPRK, Secretary of State Colin Powell had stated that the current administration plans to Ã¢â¬Å"pick up where President Clinton left offÃ¢â¬ (Manyin, Chanlett-Avery and Marchart 2005, 13) . In his joint statement a day later, after his first summit meeting with the President Kim of ROK, he declared his views against those of the ROK President about alteration of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s DPRK policy. The Bush administration consequently changed its stance completely declaring that the previous administration was rewarding North Korea for its bad behavior. Prior to any further dialogues, North Korea is asked to Ã¢â¬Å"1) start to take serious, verifiable steps to reduce the conventional weapons threat to the South, 2) Ã¢â¬Å"improved implementationÃ¢â¬ of the 1994 Agreed Framework, and 3) verifiable Ã¢â¬Å"constraintsÃ¢â¬ on North KoreaÃ¢â¬â¢s missile exports. Ã¢â¬ (Ibid, 14) In response to these statements, North Korea also asked a return of the US to the stance of the last administration. This, however, was not achieved as President Bush in his statement in the state of the Union address combined North Korea with Iran and Iraq, and declaring that they Ã¢â¬Å"constitute an axis of evilÃ¢â¬ which further instigated hostilities between the two countries. The Bush Administration further demanded that multilateral talks be conducted with North Korea so as appropriate pressure could be built for seeing the future agreements carried through. On the other hand North Korea was insisting for bilateral talks. The intervention of China in this regard, at the behest of President Bush, helped in the smooth flow of matters. The Chinese diplomats succeeded in building up a negotiating party that consisted of representatives of six countries, whose stakes were involved in the negotiations; this included South Korea, Japan, Russia, China and US. The first three rounds of bilateral talks took place in August 2003, February 2004 and June 2004, but these were without any substantial results. This delay in reaching any diplomatic settlement has been blamed on US because of its inability to come up with a negotiating proposal so that the talks could move forward substantially and in a direction. A group of officials within the top notch Bush administration wanted the Korean regime to collapse and therefore advocated the sternest measures, such as unilateral promises from the North Korean regime for demilitarization as well as for the US to keep the sanctions in place. After the fourth round of talks, the six parties agreed on a joint declaration of intentions that was released on September 19, 2005. The declaration comprised of numerous linguistic minefields and was a reflection of the mutual mistrust between the major negotiating parties. It was as a result of these many misunderstandings that overshadowed the talks and resulted in the US officials backing out of their promise of help in peaceful use of nuclear energy. Dr. Quinones was also cited as saying that the track record of the current administration is not one of diplomacy, but rather one of vacillation, inconsistency, and ultimately the undercutting of the position and the efforts of its own diplomats. South KoreaÃ¢â¬â¢s Policy through different regimes Since 1991, South Korea has adopted a policy of flexibility and reconciliation towards North Korea giving rise to bilateral relations that are getting better over the years. In 1991, President Roh Tae Woo of South Korea declared a unilateral Declaration on the Denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula, under which he promised not to produce, possess, store, deploy, or use nuclear weapons. Following it, a high level meeting took place between the two countries in which they both declared a complete denuclearization and inspections for verification. In 1998, President Kin Dae Jung came up with his Sunshine Policy that declared that South Korea will build its relations with North Korea upon peace and harmony. While the policy foresaw no unification in the near future, it nonetheless envisioned a peaceful co-existence and unification when the hurdles of rivalry were removed. The South Korean President Roh Moo-hyun also rejected US suggestions of curtailing the Sunshine Policy and warned the US against any Ã¢â¬Å"accidental warÃ¢â¬ showing solidarity for North Korea. Mike Billington has argued in his article that the two Koreas are bound to unite and the nuclear issue will not entangle their matters very far. It is now up to the US regime to understand the flow of events. The high points of these bilateral relations were Summit meetings such as the one that took place in 2000-01. Here the two leaders South Korean President Kim Dae Jung and North Korean Leader Kim Jong-il declared their intent for Ã¢â¬Å"eventual reunificationÃ¢â¬ (Manyin, 4). Summit meetings such as these eventually lead analysts to believe that in the case of these two countries, eventual reunification is a great possibility. North KoreaÃ¢â¬â¢s Military Capabilities and its Impact North Korea initiated its nuclear program around 1962, as it planned to intensify its defence. The atomic energy research complex near Yongbyon was established during mid 1960s. North Korea and United Soviet States of Russia (USSR) had signed agreements and according to these agreements an IRT-2M research reactor was established during 1965. The fuel elements were also supplied to North Korea from 1965-1973. In 1974, North Korean scientists upgraded and modernized the IRT-2M reactor just as other countries with nuclear capabilities were doing. This upgrading brought North KoreaÃ¢â¬â¢s nuclear capacity up to 8 megawatts and its fuel enrichment to 80%. Before 1977, North Korea had started construction of its second nuclear reactor. North Korea signed a Ã¢â¬Å"Type 66Ã¢â¬ agreement with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in 1977. In lieu of this agreement the IAEA inspectors were allowed to visit and inspect the 2MW IRT-research reactor and 0. 1MW critical assembly located at Yongbyon built with the assistance of USSR. From the early 1980s North Korea focused on the practical uses of the nuclear energy and attempted to complete the nuclear weapon development system. It began to operate facilities for uranium fabrication and conversion. Besides the 200 MW (e) nuclear reactor in Yongbyong and Taechon, North Korea built nuclear reprocessing facilities. North Korea also conducted high-explosive detonation tests. It was in 1985 that the United States officially announced that it had reports of the nuclear reactor near Yongbyong. Under international pressure at that time, DPRK became a signatory to the Non-proliferation Treaty. Under the treaty, North Korea was required to sign a document regarding the safeguards of the facilities which it refused to do. North Korea and South Korea signed a Joint declaration on 31st December, 1991. The declaration effectively curtailed any chance for either side from plutonium reprocessing and uranium enrichment. There were, however no progresses on the inter-Korean agreement. For two years, no real progress was made between the two sides on the agreement. In the year 1993, the joint U. S. Ã ¬Ã ¬Ã ¬- South Korea military exercises were held and North Korea declared its intent to withdraw from the NPT. It also refused to allow the IAEA team to visit two nuclear waste sites. The tensions escalated after these events. A series of talks between North Korea and United States over the next two years resulted in the signing of the Ã¢â¬Å"Agreed FrameworkÃ¢â¬ in Geneve on 21st October 1994. According to the agreement North Korea agreed to freeze it nuclear program and have enhanced security from the IAEA personnel. It was agreed that North KoreaÃ¢â¬â¢s graphite-moderated reactors will be replaced with Light-water power plants. Full normalization of economic and political relations was aimed at. That the Korean peninsula would be made a nuclear free zone was also agreed upon. It was decided that both sides would work to strengthen the nuclear proliferation-free regime. In August 2002, the U. S. government renewed the pressure on North Korea to allow the IAEA inspectors to visit the nuclear reactors and to let them inspect how much plutonium North Korea had produced. With ups and downs in the relationship between the two countries, it was in 2002, that American President George Bush decided to halt the shipment of heavy fuel oil to North Korea. Eight days after this announcement by the President North Korea declared that the 1994 agreement with the United States had collapsed. The Six-party talks started in August 2003 as the United States was not interested in bilateral talks after the failure of the Agreed Framework. The talks included North Korea, South Korea, China, Russia, Japan and United States. Thus the diplomatic initiatives to prevent North Korea from carrying out nuclear explosions continued. Second and third round of six-party talks were held in early 2004; but in February 2005 DPRK after declaring possession of nuclear weapons, boycotted the six-party talks. On 5th July, 2006 North Korea fires seven missiles into the sea of Japan and consequently UN security councils imposes sanctions on North Korea. After refusing to engage in nuclear talks and claiming to have tested a nuclear weapon in October 2006, North Korea finally agrees to give up on its nuclear program. During May 2008 North Korea briefed America regarding the its reactor at Yongbyon, and provided critical information. Due to these and other positive steps taken by the North Korean Government President Bush of USA announced on 26th June 2008: First, Im issuing a proclamation that lifts the provisions of the Trading with the Enemy Act with respect to North Korea. Ã¢â¬Å"And secondly, I am notifying Congress of my intent to rescind North Koreas designation as a state sponsor of terror in 45 days. Ã¢â¬ Policy Options of America for North Korea Bush administration has recently declared that it no longer counts North Korea amongst the nations and countries spreading terrorism. It should be noted that earlier hard and inflexible stances led to the situation where North Korea felt compelled to demonstrate its nuclear capabilities and missile technology. Comparing between the two administrations of US that dealt with the North Korean nuclear issue, the conclusion can be easily reached that although all great powers tried their utmost to stop the country from going nuclear, they could not bring it about. Although being flexible might be what was termed as rewarding bad behavior but that is the diplomatic way. Keeping a tough stance might result in unfortunate events such as war, which if it takes place now, will not effect only the Korean peninsula but the whole region, affecting global crisis.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Three Ways That Cigarette Ads Hook Kids Essay Cigarette smoking is prevalent among kids and teens. Tobacco companies invest billions of dollars every year to get children and teens to use tobacco. They target children in their advertisements to get them addicted on cigarettes at an early age. The cigarette companies use many tactics to engage youth: advertising through popular medias such as magazines, television and websites, by creating scenarios that relate to kids and by using youth-targeted flavors in their tobacco. Cigarette smoking in the movies and on television is portrayed as thrilling, fun, sexy and trendy. When smoking is viewed as normal, children tend to adopt the lifestyle. Recent marketing campaigns for cigarettes seem to have attracted the interest of teens. The ads which are featured in magazines such as, Cosmopolitan, Vogue and Glamour were a hit with girls in their early teens. Special promotional giveaways such as berry-flavored lip balm, purses, cell phone, and wristbands to lure them. Secondly, cigarette advertisement creates scenarios that relate to kids. For young girls, they have beautiful women making girls think if they smoke they will be beautiful. Likewise, they make boys think if they smoke they will get beautiful girls. The people in the ads are relaxing and having a good time. They seem to be confident and popular. These are things children and teens want. Children assume that smoking will help them get these things. FinallyÃ tobacco companies use pictures or candy, and fruit-flavored cigarettes to appeal to youth. These sweet flavorings make the tobacco taste better to children making them easy target for early addiction. The strategies employed by tobacco companies through effective advertising are working. Kids are particularly vulnerable to the highly addictive nature of tobacco.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
The Role of the Air Traffic Controller Air Traffic Controller Redesigning the Job of Air Traffic Controller Introduction Job Design Job design may be referred as a way in which an entire job or a set of tasks is organized. Job design helps in determining the tasks and the way they are completed. It considers the factors that influence the work and arrange the job contents and tasks so that the job becomes less risky to the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s life. The administrative areas involved in it are job rotation, job enlargement, task/machine pacing, work breaks and working hours (Gupta, 2007). A soundly designed job encourages a variety of good body positions and helps foster feelings of achievement and self-esteem. Air Traffic Controllers The people who operate the air traffic control system to accelerate and maintain an orderly and safe flow of air traffic are called the Air traffic controllers. They help in preventing mid-air collisions of the planes. The ATCÃ¢â¬â¢s apply such separation rules that help in keeping each aircraft at a distance from others in their area of responsibility, thus moving all aircraft efficiently throughout their airspace. Due to the presence of large responsibility on controllers in the course of performing their duty, this profession is generally observed as one of the most complex jobs, and is notoriously stressful. Stress at Workplace There have been drastic changes in the nature of work over the last century and still the changes are undergoing at the speed of a whirlwind. Changes inevitably bring stress. So no professional is untouched by stress, starting from a surgeon to an artist or a sales executive to a commercial pilot. Work stress poses risk to the physical health of the employee and consequently influences the health of the organization (Mathew, 2003). Job stress in the early stages can Ã¢â¬Ërev upÃ¢â¬â¢ the body and improve performance in the workplace (Prasad, 2008). Though, if this condition is permitted to go free and the body is revved up further, the performance will eventually decline and the persons health will degrade (Gupta, 2007). The symptoms of the stress can be insomnia, loss of mental concentration, anxiety, absenteeism, family conflict, anger and frustration. Job stress may arise due to job insecurity, high demand of performance, technological complexities, personal or family problem and workplace culture (Stress at Work, 2008). The final consequence of this job stress is the high turnover of the efficient and knowledgeable employees (Mathew, 2003). Air traffic controllers are an occupational group who has to manage a highly demanding job, which involves a complex series of tasks. These require a high level of knowledge and expertise, along with a high level of responsibility, with regard to risking lives and also the high economic costs of aeronautical activities. Productivity and Turnover As the flights run throughout the day and round the year, the air traffic control is a 24 hour and 365-days-a-year job. Only because of this reason, the controllers regularly work rotating shifts, including nights, weekends and public holidays. When the controllers are forced to work 40 hours a week instead of 32 hours a week and eight hours a shift without breaks; their efficiency and effectiveness reduces drastically. This also leads to the turnover of the controllers. The most suitable example showing the consequence of the above situation is the Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization (PATCO) strike in 1981 in America. Due to the occurrence of the situations similar to the above, 89 percent controllers left the job before retirement age and about 40 percent of these left to collect disability retirement. Historical Background of the Position and Changes that Took Place over Years The history of air traffic control and the controller way backs to the 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s when the commercial air service was developed. The occurrence of some major accidents in the subsequent years reinforced their need. The pilots used to control the flight by just looking out of the window. During the 1920s and 1930s, radio telephony was begun to be used. There was a Ã¢â¬ËWireless Traffic ControlÃ¢â¬â¢ by Ã¢â¬Ëcontrol officersÃ¢â¬â¢. Marine radio stations were used for the purpose of air traffic communications, which were not operated by the professionals in the way they are operated now. During the 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s, a dedicated air traffic services organization came into being. Second World War brought the revolution in this field. With this, the new era of developments in the field of air traffic controlling started. Specific operational techniques were started being used. Controllers used to develop plans for flying with the pilot and made use of radiotelephony for it. The ins trument called radars was developed to trace the existence of the planes in the air. In due course the intensity and power of radar was increased to enable the controllers with specific information to take decision. They used to monitor through highly processed secondary surveillance radar (SSR) data. These data flows are rooted with well-defined controlled airspace and formal rules for controlling minimum separation permitted between aircrafts. Through this SSR, the controller watches call sign, displayed aircraft symbols, and height information, which are passed down from aircraft transponders. The navigation system has stirred to satellite-based aids from point source beacons. Ground-based short-term conflict alert systems are used in UK. This technique helps in warning pilots of the aircrafts coming into close area, thus reducing the work of controllersÃ¢â¬â¢ up to a great limit. Nowadays commercial aircrafts carry Traffic alert and Collision Avoidance System, which is of great help to the pilots as well the controllers on the ground. As weather plays an important role in controlling the air traffic, weather displaying devices were also provided to them. Now they are provided with more acc urate weather information displays and can ensure a very effective control on the air traffic (Brooker, 2007). Fundamental Problems with the Current Job Design Air traffic control is one of the most stressful jobs. With the single decision of a controller, thousands of airline passengersÃ¢â¬â¢ lives can be affected. This results in the ulcers, heart conditions, hypertension and alcoholism among controllers. The chief sources of stress being reported by air traffic controllers are associated to two aspects. They are the operative aspect of their job and the organizational structures. The most important factors in the former case are the time pressure, peaks of traffic load, resolving variances in the use of rules and the limitations and consistency of equipments. The factors, which are related to organizational structure, are chiefly concerned with the unfavorable working conditions, shift schedules (particularly night work), role conflicts and a lack of control over the work (Air Traffic Controller Job Description, Career as a Air Traffic Controller, Salary, Employment Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirement s, Getting the Job, 2008). Job Redesigning Viewing the condition of the air traffic controllers and the difficulties faced by them while performing their task, their job needs to be redesigned. Job redesigning will help in improving the health and safety of the air traffic controllers as well as improve the health of the organization. The steps, which may be undertaken to redesign the air traffic controllerÃ¢â¬â¢s job, are: holding a stress prevention program on regular intervals and making it a part of the organizational culture. Attendance in this program should be made compulsory for all air traffic controllers. Next step, which can be undertaken, is the improvement in the transportation to work, canteens and sleeping facilities. The other could be to improve the technology and the work organization. Steps can be taken to improve the job planning involved in the job as well as to enhance the reliability of the working systems. The other steps in redesigning the job of the controller can be working time reduction, arrangi ng shift-schedules keeping in mind the social and psycho-physiological criteria, arranging work teams and rest pauses aligned with load of the work and enforcing such approaches that improve the participation of the air traffic controllers in decisions concerning them. Specifically, in the technological field, such computer software can be designed, which assists air traffic controllers. For example, more accurate computer enhanced radar will be beneficial. Such automated system can be designed and made available to the controllers, which once fed with the data relating to flight timings, will display all the further needed information to the controller. Thus, it will reduce the brainstorming exercises done by the air traffic controllers regarding the regular routs and the number of regular flights on the airport. The controllers can be provided with more efficient hearing and other communication devices to enable them transfer clear instructions, thus avoiding any decision fault. Making more use of instrument landing systems, which allows planes to make automatic landings and ensuring that planes are placed in holding patterns when airports are busy. Apart from the above things, special attention is required to be paid in the area of the structure of tasks and workplace, particularly the issues like lighting, noise, micro-climatic conditions and indoor air quality (Brooker, 2007). Impact the New Job Design on the Organization As a result of this, job redesign reduces much of the work load, work pressure, health hazards and turnover of the air traffic controllers. The stress prevention programs conducted by the organization will have a great impact on the performance and efficiency of the controllers and the organization. Extending their facilities of relaxing, canteen, transportation, shift redesigning and team building would motivate them to work with more vigor and efficiency, which would lead to a high organizational performance. The changes in the technology would surely enhance the performance and commitment of the controllers; reduce the stress at the work place; thus reducing the turnover of the controllers from the job (Mamoria Gankar, 2002). Thus, we can conclude that with the increasing pressure on the air traffic, air traffic controllers are facing many job related problems. The only solution to solve these problems is to redesign the job of the controllers. This would improve the working conditions as well as problem of health hazards in the air traffic controllers; thus improving the productivity and commitment towards the organizational goals. References Air Traffic Controller Job Description, Career as an Air Traffic Controller, Salary, Employment Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job (2008). Retrieved April 12, 2008 from http://careers.stateuniversity.com/pages/814/Air-Traffic-Controller.html Brooker, P. (2007). Air Traffic Safety: Continued Evolution or a New Paradigm? Retrieved April 12, 2008 from https://dspace.lib.cranfield.ac.uk/bitstream/1826/1967/1/Air%20Traffic%20Safety-Transport%20Risk%20Management%20Lecture-2007.pdf Gupta, C.B. (2007). Hunan Resource Management (3rd Edition), New Delhi: Sultan Chand and Sons. Mamoria, C. B Gankar, S.V (2002). Personal Management (22nd Edition). New Delhi: Himalaya Publishing House. Mathew, M.J. (2003). Fundamentals of Organizational Theory and Behavior, Jaipur: RBSA Publishers Prasad, L.M. (2008). Organizational Behavior (3rd Revised). New Delhi: Sultan Chand and Sons Educational Publishers. Stress at Work (2008). Retrieved April 12, 2008 from http://www.lifepositive.com/mind/psychology/stress/stress-at-work.asp
From the beginning of time there have been many anomalies in humanity. With the advancement of techniques, tools, and knowledge, our understanding of the world aspires to clarify our curiosities. The most beneficial to factors throughout our history would include our knowledge of numbers. Numbers hold great possibilities and bring forth answers to the most complex systems of life. Our mathematics is incorporated into basic aspects of our daily lives, allowing us to unlock our potentials and give keys to uncover the hidden secrets in the universe. There are many applications to mathematics such as triangulating polygons. Triangulation is a surveying technique in which a region is divided into a series of triangular elements based on a line of known length so that accurate measurements of distances and directions may be made by the application of trigonometry. (Company, 2009) Since its discovery, triangulation has lent the world many beneficial advantages. Polygons exist as multi-sided shapes. These shapes can be subdivided into many non-overlapping triangles. These triangles connect corners to corners, creating diagonals that section it off. These sections are called convex hulls. The many uses of algorithms allow anyone to calculate these triangular hulls. The mathematics behind triangulating polygons was originated in Alexandria by the man, Euclides. Euclides was a Greek mathematician who was highly revered as the Ã¢â¬Å"Father of Geometry.Ã¢â¬ Euclides possessed a mysterious personal life, because his life was not documented and often confused with others. He taught many children mathematics during the reign of Ptolemy. His father and grandfather were thought to be Greek, but this is not certain considering the confusion between him... ...'s Formula. Retrieved from ENRICH: http://nrich.maths.org/1384 Company, H. M. (2009). Triangulation. Retrieved from TheFreeDictionary by Farlex: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/triangulation csunplugged. (2010, October 30). Santa's Dirty Socks (Divide and Conquer Algorithms). Retrieved from Youtube: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wVPCT1VjySA lecture, P. T. (1993). Triangulations and Arrangements. McGill University. Math Open Reference. (2009). Euclid. Retrieved from Math Open Reference: http://www.mathopenref.com/euclid.html Suksak, P. S. (2010, November 30). Catalan Numbers Presentation 2. Retrieved from Slide Share: http://www.slideshare.net/PaiSukanyaSuksak/catalan-number-presentation2 Teter, M. (2000, March 15). Sonar a way of seeing sound. Retrieved from Cornell Center for Material Research: http://www.ccmr.cornell.edu/education/ask/index.html?quid=260 Triangulated Polygons Essay -- Mathematics From the beginning of time there have been many anomalies in humanity. With the advancement of techniques, tools, and knowledge, our understanding of the world aspires to clarify our curiosities. The most beneficial to factors throughout our history would include our knowledge of numbers. Numbers hold great possibilities and bring forth answers to the most complex systems of life. Our mathematics is incorporated into basic aspects of our daily lives, allowing us to unlock our potentials and give keys to uncover the hidden secrets in the universe. There are many applications to mathematics such as triangulating polygons. Triangulation is a surveying technique in which a region is divided into a series of triangular elements based on a line of known length so that accurate measurements of distances and directions may be made by the application of trigonometry. (Company, 2009) Since its discovery, triangulation has lent the world many beneficial advantages. Polygons exist as multi-sided shapes. These shapes can be subdivided into many non-overlapping triangles. These triangles connect corners to corners, creating diagonals that section it off. These sections are called convex hulls. The many uses of algorithms allow anyone to calculate these triangular hulls. The mathematics behind triangulating polygons was originated in Alexandria by the man, Euclides. Euclides was a Greek mathematician who was highly revered as the Ã¢â¬Å"Father of Geometry.Ã¢â¬ Euclides possessed a mysterious personal life, because his life was not documented and often confused with others. He taught many children mathematics during the reign of Ptolemy. His father and grandfather were thought to be Greek, but this is not certain considering the confusion between him... ...'s Formula. Retrieved from ENRICH: http://nrich.maths.org/1384 Company, H. M. (2009). Triangulation. Retrieved from TheFreeDictionary by Farlex: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/triangulation csunplugged. (2010, October 30). Santa's Dirty Socks (Divide and Conquer Algorithms). Retrieved from Youtube: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wVPCT1VjySA lecture, P. T. (1993). Triangulations and Arrangements. McGill University. Math Open Reference. (2009). Euclid. Retrieved from Math Open Reference: http://www.mathopenref.com/euclid.html Suksak, P. S. (2010, November 30). Catalan Numbers Presentation 2. Retrieved from Slide Share: http://www.slideshare.net/PaiSukanyaSuksak/catalan-number-presentation2 Teter, M. (2000, March 15). Sonar a way of seeing sound. Retrieved from Cornell Center for Material Research: http://www.ccmr.cornell.edu/education/ask/index.html?quid=260
Monday, August 19, 2019
In literary essays, students are exploring meaning and construction of a piece of literature. In a review students are discussing overall effect and validity of written work, while in a literary essay students are paying more attention to specifics. Students are taking a piece of writing and trying to discover how and why it is put together way it is. Students must adopt a viewpoint on work in question and show how details of work support their viewpoint. Like the novel, the essay is a literary device for saying almost everything about almost anything. By tradition, almost by definition, the essay is a short piece, and it is therefore impossible to give all things full play within the limits of a single essay. But a collection of essays can cover almost as much ground, and cover it almost as thoroughly, as can a long novel. Montaigne's Third Book is the equivalent, very nearly, of a good slice of the ComÃ ©die Humaine. Essays belong to a literary species whose extreme variability can be studied most effectively within a three-poled frame of reference. There is the pole of the personal and the autobiographical, there is the pole of the objective, the factual, the concrete-particular, and there is the pole of the abstract-universal. Most essayists are at home and at their best in the neighborhood of only one of the essay's three poles, or at the most only in the neighborhood of two of them. There are the predominantly personal essayist s, who write fragments of reflective autobiography and who look at the world through the keyhole of anecdote and description. There are the predominantly objective essayists who do not speak directly of themselves, but turn their attention outward to some literary or scientific or political theme. Ã¢â¬ ¦ And how splendid, how truly oracular are the utterances of the great generalizers! Ã¢â¬ ¦ The most richly satisfying essays are those which make the best not of one, not of two, but of all the three worlds in which it is possible for the essay to exist The research essay leads students into works of others and asks students to compare their thoughts with their own.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
A SpeakerÃ¢â¬â¢s Reflections Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Robert HaydenÃ¢â¬â¢s poem Ã¢â¬Å"Those Winter SundaysÃ¢â¬ is a reflection the speaker has regarding his father. An analysis of the poemÃ¢â¬â¢s tone and language reveals the speaker regrets his father did so much for the family and Ã¢â¬Å"no one ever thanked himÃ¢â¬ . It is obvious the speaker feels regret for the way he behaved toward his father in the past by examining the phrases in the poem, particularly with the description of the father. The connotations of the language used in this description denote the father in a certain way that the speaker did not see him as before. The tone and feeling of regret or sorrow is evident in the poem not only through language and word choice on the literal surface, but also in the structure of the poem itself. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The poem indicates the father as hardworking by his description. The speaker reveals the father has Ã¢â¬Å"cracked hands that ached from laborÃ¢â¬ and that Ã¢â¬Å"Sundays tooÃ¢â¬ he Ã¢â¬Å"got up earlyÃ¢â¬ to start a fire and warm the house. As if this gesture is not enough, Ã¢â¬Å"HeÃ¢â¬â¢d callÃ¢â¬ to his family Ã¢â¬Å"when the rooms were warmÃ¢â¬ so they would not have to endure the Ã¢â¬Å"blueblack coldÃ¢â¬ of a winter morning. The poem also indicates the father doing other chores, such as polishing Ã¢â¬Å"my good shoes.Ã¢â¬ This description of the father is moving, it show he loves his family and is thoughtful enough to do the chores no one else would want to do. The word choice for this description is very interesting, howe...
Saturday, August 17, 2019
David Andrade 10/29/10 Enc1101 Creativity Paper David Andrade 10/29/10 Enc1101 Creativity Outline Thesis: The purpose of this paper is to define the research and the positive and negative effects on creative persons. I. Research A. Military 1. Military research was one of the earlier researches it was financed by the U. S department of defense, seeking new technology and more creative leaders in the wake of World War II (Roark). 2. Since the time of the ancient Greeks there has been many suppositions as to why some individuals are remarkably creative, one of these speculations were that it was a gift from the gods. II.Positive Aspects of Creative People A. Working till the end. 1. Creative persons are usually totally into their work until the end. 2. A creative person can usually see a project until the end. (Glover) 3. Creative people can usually dismiss any other stuff until their work is complete. (Glover) B. Taking Control 1. Creative people tend to be more comfortable with takin g care of tasks when there are no clear explanations for instructions. (Glover) 2. Creative persons tend to feel that they can control what happens to them in life. (Glover) 3. Creative people in general, like to take risks. (Glover) III. Negative Aspects of Creative PeopleA. Mental disorders 1. Psychiatrists have noticed that among distinguished artists, manic and major depression is ten to thirty percent as common. (Ã¢â¬Å"Mad GeniusÃ¢â¬ ) 2. Many artists have been diagnosed with different types of depression. 3. According to Arnold Ludwig from the University of Kentucky Medical center, fifty nine to seventy percent of the 1004 artists, writers, and musicians suffered from mental illness. (Scholten) 4. Many creative people suffer from Bipolar as well. (Scholten) B. Moods 1. Psychiatrists have noticed that among distinguished artists, manic and major depression is ten to thirty percent as common. Ã¢â¬Å"Mad GeniusÃ¢â¬ ) 2. More people with mood swings and mental disabilities ha ve been found in the arts. (Roarke) 3. Dr. Andreason found that eighty percent of writers were depressed at some point in their lives. (Roarke) There are many different types of people in this world, one of them are creative people. Creative people have been around forever and are the people that have made this world evolve. The purpose of this paper is to define the research and the positive and negative effects on creative persons. Many Researches have been conducted on creativity.Military research was one of the earlier researches it was financed by the U. S department of defense, seeking new technology and more creative leaders in the wake of World War II (Roark). Over yearÃ¢â¬â¢s scientist have conducted many tests to evaluate the level of creativity. The level of creativity on certain individuals has been a mystery to many scientists, for example why was it that while Leonardo Da Vinci could paint the Mona Lisa other normal individuals were barely able to draw stick figures, or why was it that Albert Einstein revolutionized the world of physics while other didnÃ¢â¬â¢t even know how to use car radios.There have been many speculations made of why some human beings are remarkably creative. Since the time of the ancient Greeks there has been many suppositions as to why some individuals are remarkably creative, one of these speculations were that it was a gift from the gods. Some modern thinkers believe that it was just a combination of lucky genes, coincidence. Creative people may have certain inherited talents or biologically controlled predilections a painter, for example, might have peculiar sensitivity to the light; a musician, an unusual awareness of sound; a dancer, a certain physical size or muscle mass (Roark).Creative people have always needed to be an essential part in our society back in the day and even today. We can always improve and come out with new technologies and ideas and the people that come out with these products are the entreprene urs who are generally for the most part creative thinking people. Now that we have seen how creative studies in the past were made and how creative people have been linked back for millions of years I will talk about the positive aspect of creative people.Creative people for the most part, are very concentrated thinking people. They set their mind to something and they do not stop until it is complete. In the book Ã¢â¬Å"A Creative Person Tends to Be This WayÃ¢â¬ John Glover states that creative people can usually see a project through the end and can put aside anything that will distract them from getting their goal done. Another very good aspect of the creative thinker is that they can very easily take control of situations.In his book, John Glover states that creative thinker tends to be more comfortable in an environment where the directions are not clear. He can think for himself and come up with an alternative even though the steps on how to get those alternatives or soluti ons may not be clear. As well, Glover states that the creative thinker can usually feel that they are in control of their lives. They feel as if they can control what will happen in their lives in the future. The last very good aspect of the creative thinker is that he is a risk taker.Glover states that most creative thinkers have a risk taking attitude. In life to get to a great goal, we must take risks. If there is no risk there is no reward. That is why we see all these entrepreneurs like Bill Gates the developer of Microsoft and Steve Jobs the developer of Apple for example. They had to take a huge risk in putting their time and money into a project as big as the ones they have. So the creative person is generally more of a risk taker that the average person.Now that we have spoken about the positive aspects of creativity, letÃ¢â¬â¢s talk about the negative aspects of creativity and how having a creative mind has affected many people around the world and can be affecting you e ven. When we usually think of the word Ã¢â¬Å"creativeÃ¢â¬ we usually think of it as a positive word, a good thing for society. But what people donÃ¢â¬â¢t know is that behind many creative thinking people a lot of problems occur. Such problems include mood swings, bipolar problems and several types of depression such as major and manic depression.LetÃ¢â¬â¢s talk about the depression and how it affects the creative person. In the article Ã¢â¬Å"Mad GeniusÃ¢â¬â¢ is no myth, scientists now agreeÃ¢â¬ it states that psychiatrists have noticed that among distinguished artists, manic and major depressions are ten to thirty percent as common. Many artists have been diagnosed with several different types of depressions. According to Arnold Ludwig from the University of Kentucky Medical Center, fifty nine to seventy percent of the 1004 artists, writers and musicians suffered from some type of a mental illness as well as bipolarity (Scholten).Also very common among creative persons are mood swings. Mood swings are when you are acting one way and then start acting in another way the next. This is very common in most creative thinkerÃ¢â¬â¢s minds. In the Article Ã¢â¬Å"Mad GeniusÃ¢â¬â¢ is no myth, scientists now agreeÃ¢â¬ is stated that more people with mood swings and mental disabilities have been noticed and reported in the arts. Dr Andreason found that eight percent of writers were depressed at some time in their lives. Psychiatrists have noticed that among certain artists, mood swings and mental disorders are very common.Now that I have discussed the negative effects of the creative thinker in general, I would like to explain further the different types of depressions that I mentioned so that people may have a better understanding of what these depression and mood swings they get are. First letÃ¢â¬â¢s talk about manic depression and what it is. Manic depression varies when people are at the very peak of a mood which would be the manic stage and the very low point of a mood which would be the depression. This is one of the most common types of depressions in the creative persons.This type of depression is also known as bipolarity. This disorder may be linked genetically which back to what I discussed in how the creative mind came about saying that creative thinkers usually have had someone in their bloodline that also was a creative thinker may have also had manic depression or bipolarity. Major depression is very different than manic depression. Major depression is also much known as clinical depression and requires monitoring and medication. This type of depression is basically a more up scaled more dangerous type of depression compared to the manic depression.Many artists, writers, poets, and creative people in general have had to go through this type of depression. Most people that get this type of depression just feel very sad all the time and cannot really enjoy life nor can enjoy the things that perhaps at one point in their lives made them feel very happy. So now to conclude, I hope that I have explained well how the roots of creativity was formed and how the early uses of creativity was formed and how the early uses of creative minds were put into play in the world. I also hope you understand the positive and negative effects that creativity has on the creative mind.Also, to further understand, I explained the different types of depression that many creative thinkers have experienced at some point in their lives. Being a creative person has benefited very much to society and will continue to benefit society to come up and develop new technologies and products. But although the creative thinker has been traced back to the beginning of time we must also remember the negative effects that has come over the years with the creative thinker. Work Cited Glover, John A. A Creative Person Tends To Be This Way, Florida, 1969.Print Ã¢â¬Å"Mad GeniusÃ¢â¬â¢ is no myth, scientists now agree. Ã¢â¬ Busines s week 4. May 1922: Pages 20-22 Print. Roarke, Anne. Ã¢â¬Å"Creative people suffer higher rates of mental illness, studies confirm. Ã¢â¬ New York Times July, 2004: pages 20-26 Print. Roarke, Anne. Ã¢â¬Å"Scientists Search For The Roots of Creativity. Ã¢â¬ Lose Angeles Times 20. 6(2 July 1984). Web 16 Oct. 2004. http. //www. Losangelestimes. com/456j24z Scholten, Amy. Ã¢â¬Å"Creative and Depression: Is There a Link? | ThirdAge Articles. Ã¢â¬ Baby Boomer Health, Aging & Retirement| Midlife Caregiving & Relationships| ThirdAge. Web. 11 Oct. 2010. .
Friday, August 16, 2019
British and European Custom interwoven with Maori and Polynesian tradition. Maori tradition dominated the beginning of human existence in New Zealand and has stayed around even as the culture modernized. Maori established separate tribes, hunted and fished, traded commodities, developed agriculture, arts and weaponry, and kept a detailed oral history. Regular European contact began approximately 200 years ago, and British immigration proceeded rapidly during the nineteenth century. Colonists affected the Maori tradition by introducing religion, technology, and the English language. European New ZealanderÃ¢â¬â¢s, despite being far from Europe, kept strong ties to the Ã¢â¬Å"mother land. Ã¢â¬ These ties were weakened by the demise of the British empire and their loss of special access to British meat and dairy markets. More recently, New Zealand culture has been broadened by globalization and immigration from the Pacific Islands, East Asia, and South Asia. European and Maori remain the two largest ethnicities Maori and Kiwi: Language has evolved to two major languages, Maori and English. The two have influenced each other Maori demeanor: Maori are friendly and place great value on hospitality They are easy to get to know and will say hello to strangers. They often break into speech or song and even if they donÃ¢â¬â¢t know each other they may close conversations with a song. Maori will know the same songs so they are able to sing together even if they just met. New ZealandÃ¢â¬â¢s indigenous people (Maori) have tattoos covering their face. This art stands for warriors. Some New Zealanders are still representing these tattoos today. Kiwi demeanor: . New Zealanders are friendly, outgoing, somewhat reserved initially yet polite, and enjoy extending hospitality. . They are quite easy to get to know as they say hello to strangers and will offer assistance without being asked. . Because they do not stand on ceremony and are egalitarian, they move to a first name basis quickly and shun the use of titles. Kiwis dress casual. There are no dress codes in restaurants. Even business men may take off suit jackets and roll up shirt sleeves. Modern New Zealanders live very casually and laid-back. Environmentalism: Kiwis are extremely concerned with the environment and keeping their counties beauty. One of the major local issues is importing of predators. Boarder controls are very tight and there are huge fines for importing food or other natural products such as wood, cane, etc. The local attitude about the environment comes from the indigenous people, the Maori. . They believe that all things have a Ã¢â¬Ëmauri' Ã¢â¬â a life force. Damage to this life force, or human attempts to dominate it, result in the mauri losing its energy and vitality, which affects the lives of people as well as the resilience of ecosystems. . Maintaining the mauri of the environment and ecosystem resilience are equally important for sustainable development Egalitarianism: New Zealand has no formal class system. They take pride in individual achievement and wealth and pow er are not extremely important. As a Ã¢â¬Ëwelfare stateÃ¢â¬â¢ unemployment and health benefits are available to those who cannot afford it. New Zealanders believe that everyone is equal regardless of race or social status. Etiquette: Traditional Maori greetings consist of a handshake and they often touch their faces to each other. Kiwi meetings are casual and move quickly to first names. Greetings consist of a handshake and a smile New Zealanders can be somewhat reserved with people they do not know. Rugby is the largest sport in New Zealand. The Kiwi (New Zealanders) are very competitive when it comes to rugby. The All Blacks are a favorite Rugby team. The all blacks have won 75% of games since 1903.
Thursday, August 15, 2019
DETAILED PROJECT REPORT FOR HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT 1. 0 CONTEXT :- 1. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND Ã¢â¬â 1. DEVELOPMENT IN TECHNICAL EDUCATION- National policy on education 1986 which includes 10 year Technician education investment program for upgrading newly introduced Diploma Programs, with emphasis on rural population as well as continuing education programs aimed at upgrading already employed Technicians.This policy also emphasized on improving the quality of these Diploma Programs by strengthening teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s training program, curriculum development, examination & student assessment system and modernizing the Workshops, laboratories and classrooms of the polytechnics. Finally NPE Ã¢â¬â 86 aimed to improve the efficiency of the TES by strengthening the A. I. C. T. E. , the Four T. T. T. IÃ¢â¬â¢s, the D. T. E. , M. S. B. T. E. , granting academic autonomy to selected polytechnics and further strengthening the NTMIS and NATIONAL BOARD of ACCREDITATION . (Ref. A comparati ve study of Technical Education in Germany &India with spl-reference to Maharashtra Ã¢â¬â Ph. d. dissertation Ã¢â¬â by Dr. A. R. Thete ) The World Bank assisted Project for strengthening Technician education system in Maharashtra State was implemented by the State Government during 1992 to 1999. (Ref- Policy & Direction report Ã¢â¬â DIIC (M. S. ) Mumbai) The World Bank assisted Project has been conceived as the means of implementing most of the decisions included in the NPE Ã¢â¬â1986. The goal of WBAP was to support NPE Ã¢â¬â 1986 and emphasis was given on capacity expansion, quality improvement and efficiency improvement.As an impact of this project, infrastructure facilities have been provided to all the institutions and there has been some achievements towards improving quality of polytechnic education system. On the similar lines of the World Bank Assisted Project the Canada-India Institute Industry linkage project has been launched in Maharashtra State . It will enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of the TES by means of INDO-AUSTRIA Project is under planning stage and this will provide CNC Machining Technology in the Technical Institutes of Maharashtra State for Training and Educational purposes. (Ref- Policy & Direction report Ã¢â¬â DIIC (M.S. ) Mumbai) 1. 1. 2 Thrust toward qualitative improvement :- Prior to the emergence of World Bank assisted Project the training was imparted by ISTE, TTTI etc. The experiences gained during training were not fully utilized. Due to World Bank assisted project the State has made effort to improve management and educational process, but these efforts were fragmentary. In the last five decades there has been manifold expansion in polytechnic education systems. The unprecedented expansion notwithstanding, the system design has remained more or less static. Changes in the system if any have been superficial in nature.As a result, the system continues to produce more of the routine kind of output, not adequately responding to the changing needs. (Ref. Ã¢â¬â Draft policy guidelines for training teachers of polytechnics & engineering colleges Ã¢â¬â Ministry of H. R. D. , Department of Secondary & Higher Education, May-2000) Technical education is now considered as one of the most crucial inputs for socio Ã¢â¬â economic development with enormous potential for improving the quality of life of the people. Improvement in Education & Management processes is essentially slow, primarily because educational enterprise as whole is labour intensive and not capital intensive.Improvement of capabilities of system as whole involves acquisition of new knowledge, skills and attitudes. not only by individuals but also at the collective level by teams, departments, institutions and State level organizations. (Ref- Policy & Direction report Ã¢â¬â DIIC (M. S. ) Mumbai) This requires HRD strategy on the long term basis. It requires capability of Key personnel at each level of operation fo r project management. Human Resource Development is a continuos process. Also in order to sustain the gains of World Bank assisted Project and to make deliberate efforts in improving quality and efficiency of the system.Directorate of Industry Institute Co-ordination has taken initiative to formulate HRD strategy on long term basis and a systematic, scientific Staff Development Planning for Technical Education System for 2000-2005 with co-operation of M. S. B. T. E. and T. T. T. I. , Bhopal. 1. 1. 3 Resource group formation for H. R. D. :- Directorate of Industry Ã¢â¬â Institute co-ordination has taken initiative to formulate H. R. D. strategy on long term basis and a systematic scientific staff development planning with the co-operation of M. S. B. T. E. & T. T. T. I. , Bhopal. For preparing a detailed project report n Human Resource Development for T. E. S. of Maharashtra, a State Resource Group (S. R. G. ) was formed in May 2000. 1. 1. 4 Master plan for the whole Technical Edu cation system :- A master plan indicating post project status of total T. E. S. , systemÃ¢â¬â¢s diagram linked to the customer is prepared by S. R. G. as shown in fig. 1. The linkages of various educational processes & enabling processes are shown in fig. 1. HRD is the one of enabling process which is linked to all other educational & enabling processes. See parent document by State Resource Group lead by Shri Makone. 1. 1. 5 Context of H. R. D. ith respect to Technical Education System :- A master plan indicating post-project status of total Technical education System diagram linked to customer (i. e. industry) is drawn to understand the Role of Human Resource development in Technical Education System. (Ref. Ã¢â¬â fig. 1) It is an systemÃ¢â¬â¢s diagram which shows Ã¢â¬â 1) Customer of the system 2) Mission of Technical Education System. 3) Goal of the T. E. S. 4) Output 5) Signal Input 6) Process Educational Enabling 7) Management 8) Resource Input 9) Supra system 9. 1) S uppliers of Input 9. 2) Suppliers of Resources 9. 3) Regulatory Agencies 0) Competitors. The ultimate output of T. E. S. required is manpower having right type of knowledge , skills & attitudes . In order to accomplish this output, Process of transformation of HRD has to be planned. These processes are classified into two categories Ã¢â¬â i) Educational Processes Ã¢â¬â which ensure that the students are educated & trained through scientific action by levels of key personnel. ii) Enabling processes Ã¢â¬â which ensure that this main educational process are supported by Ã¢â¬Ë enabling processes Ã¢â¬â¢ which provide frame work within which educational processes take place.The Educational Processes are Ã¢â¬â 1) State Planning Ã¢â¬â At State level 2) Institutional Planning Ã¢â¬â At institute level 3) Curriculum design & development Ã¢â¬â Department level 4) L. R. D. C. Ã¢â¬â L. R. U. C. Ã¢â¬â 5) Instructional design Ã¢â¬â At Class room 6) StudentÃ¢â¬â¢s learning Ã¢â¬â level All these processes interact with each other. The enabling processes which enables the Educational processes to perform in the right direction are Ã¢â¬â 1) State Project Planning Ã¢â¬â Ensuring that innovative projects are systematically managed at all levels of project institute. ) Industry Institute Interaction Ã¢â¬â Ensures that project institutes are linked to industry. 3) Human Resource development Ã¢â¬â Ensures that all project institutes are equipped with right type of Human resource in right numbers & at right time. 4) Management Information System Ã¢â¬â Ensures that all projects institutes have access to all types of information ( generic & specific) for decision-making. 5) Organisational development. Ã¢â¬â Ensures that all project institutes are simultensasly helped to 1) establish the project cells & 2) restructure the parent institute so that project-cell working in close co-operation with the main stream staff.These enabling pr ocesses are each designed & developed & implemented simultensasly at all levels of the system. Process of Human Resource development is linked with all the educational processes and also the Enabling processes quoted above. Trained manpower which is the output of H. R. D. , is required to sustain the Educational & Enabling processes to make the T. E. S. effective & efficient. System diagram for the H. R. D. system indicating Post-Project status is as shown in figure No. 2. The output of H. R. D. is trained manpower required for all the educational & enabling processes.The process of Transformation consists of three stages. ( Article faculty development by Dr. P. J. George, Programme Director, I. S. New Delhi) 1) Initial Training 2) Induction Training 3) In service Training. In Initial Training, theoretical Input in new disciplines in Education & information management is to be given. In Induction Training microskills are to be developed & in Inservice Training consolidation of micro skills into a macro-skills their utilization in the actual institutional context takes place. 6.Developmental model of Human Resource Planning & Development in Industry to serve as model of HRD in TES (Model from E. H. Schein) :- CONTEXT :- Human growth takes place through successive encounters with oneÃ¢â¬â¢s environment. As the person encounters a new situation, he or she is forced to try new responses to deal with that situation. Learning takes place as a function of those responses work out and the results they achieve. If they are successful in coping with the situation, the person enlarges his repertory of responses, if they are not successful the person must try alternate responses until the situation has been dealt with.If none of the active coping responses work, the person sometimes retreats from the new situation or denies there is a problem to be solved. These responses are defensive and growth limiting. For growth to occur, people need two things : New challenges that are within the range of their coping responses and knowledge of results Ã¢â¬â information on how their responses to the challenge have worked out. If the tasks & challenges are too easy or too hard, the person will be demotivated and cease to grow.If the information is not available on how well the persons responses are working, the person cannot grow in systematic, valid direction but is forced into guessing or trying to infer information from ambiguous signals. The organizational growth similarly takes place through organizations successful coping with the internal & external environment. But since the organisation is a complex system of human, material, machines, financial & informational resources, we must consider how each of these areas can be properly managed toward organizational effectiveness.In order for the organisation to have the capacity to perform effectively over a period of time it must be able to plan to recruit, manages develop, measure, dispose of and replace human resources as warranted by the tasks be done. A key assumption underlying organizational growth is that the nature of jobs will change overtime, which means that such changes must be continuously monitored in order to ensure that the right kinds of human resources can be recruited and developed to do these jobs.In an ideal Human resource planning & development system we should seek to match organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s needs for human resources with the individuals needs for personal career growth and development. A developmental model of Human resource planning & development is depicted in figure 3. It involves both individuals & organizational planning & a series of matching activities designed to satisfy mutual needs. The components of an effective H. R. P. D. System can be derived from this diagram Ã¢â¬â 1) In the organisation the overall planning component shown at left hand side in fig. . 2) Components that ensure an adequate process of staffing the organisation. 3) Componen t that plan for & monitor growth and development. 4) Component that facilitate the actual process of growth and development of the people who are brought into the organisation. This growth & development must be organized to meet both the needs of the organisation & the needs of the individuals within it. 1. 1. 7 Brief description of components of developmental model :- As said earlier the function of the components mentioned in article No. 1. 1. is to ensure that the organisation has an adequate basis for selecting its human resources & developing them toward the fulfillment of organizational goals. 1. 1. 7. 1 ORGANISATIONAL NEEDS 1) PLANNING FOR STAFFING Strategic Planning Ã¢â¬â These activities are designed to determine the organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s goals, Priorities future directions, products, market growth rate, geographical location & organisation structure & design. 2) Job / role planning :- This activity can be thought of as a dynamic kind of job analysis, where a continual r eview is made of the skills, knowledge, values etc. urrently needed in the organisation & that will be needed in the future . From a planning point of view it is probably most important for the highest level jobs Ã¢â¬â how the nature of general & functional management will change as the organisation faces new technologies, new social values & new environmental conditions. From these knowledge, skills , attitudes, values job descriptions are to be generated. 3) Manpower Planning & Human resource inventorying Ã¢â¬â These activities draw on the job/role descriptions generated and assess the capabilities of the present human resources against those plans or recruitments.These activities may be focussed on the number of people in given categories & are often designed to ensures adequate supply of people in those categories. Or the process may focus more on how to ensure that certain scarce skills that will be needed will in fact be available, leading to more sophisticated programme s of recruitment or human resource development. 1. 1. 7. 2 INDIVIDUAL NEEDS :- The three activities mentioned above are all geared to identifying the organizations needs in the human resource area. These three activities should be linked to each other organizationally.If these activities are not linked together, the situation reflects on erroneous assumption about growth & development. 1) Career & job Ã¢â¬â choice 2) Earlier career issue locating 3) Mid Ã¢â¬â career issue locating. If there are no major change in job requirements as the organisation grows & develops, the system normally work, But if job themselves change, it is no longer safe to assume that todayÃ¢â¬â¢s human resources, with development plans based on todayÃ¢â¬â¢s job requirements, will produce the people needed in some future situation. Therefore more job/role planning must be done, independent of the present in the organisation. . 1. 7. 3 MATCHING PROCESS :- (Linking of organizational need to individual needs) 1) Job Analysis :- If the organizational planning has been done adequately, the next component is to specify what jobs need to be filled & what skills etc. are needed to those jobs. It will help to specify what kind of recruitment to undertake and how to select people from among the recruits. 2) Recruitment & Selection :- This activity involves the actual process of going out to find people to fulfill jobs & developing systems for deciding which of these people to recruit / hire.These components may be very formal including testing, assessment and other aids to the selection process. 3) Induction, Socialization & Initial Training :- Once the employee is recruited / hired, these ensures & period during which he or she learns the ropes, learns how to get along in the organisation, how to work, how to fit in, how to master the particulars of the job and so on. The goal should be to facilitate the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s becoming a productive & useful member of the organisation both in short run and in terms of long range potential. ) Job design & Job Assignment :- One of the most crucial components of staffing is the actual design of the job given to the new employee & the manner in which assignment is made. The issue is how to provide optimal challenge, a set of activities neither too hard nor too easy for the new employee and neither too meaningless nor too risky from the point of view of the organisation If the job is too easy or too meaningless, the employee may become demotivated, if the job is too hard and involves too much responsibility & risk, the employee may become too anxious, frustrated or angry to perform at an optimal level.The four components 1) Job analysis,2) Recruitment & selection, 3) Induction, Socialization & Initial Training, 4) Job design and Job assignment are the matching processing geared to ensuring that the work of the organisation will be performed. These processes are to be performed by line managers, personnel staff specialists to gether. Line managers have the basic information about jobs & skills requirements. Personnel specialists have the interviewing, recruiting & assessment skills to aid in the selection process. In optimal System these functions shall be closely co-ordinated. Recruiters shall provide to the employee, accurate information bout the nature of the organisation & actual work he / she will be doing in it. Recruiters also need good information on the long range human resource plans so that these can be taken into account in selection of new employee. Development Planning: Ã¢â¬â Same planning activities are essential so as to make the employee remain motivated, productive & maintain a reasonable level of job satisfaction. i) Inventorying of development plans: Ã¢â¬â The planning component will consist of pulling together the information into a centralized inventory that will permit co-ordination & evaluation of the development activities. i) Follow up & evaluation of development activitie s: Ã¢â¬â Development plan for individual employees will be written down, implemented & evaluated either in relation to the individuals own needs for growth or in relation to the organizations needs for new skills. Career Development Processes: Ã¢â¬â These processes must match the organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s needs for work with the individual needs for a productive & satisfying work career. It must provide some kind of forms and movements for the employee through some succession of jobs, whether these involve promotion, lateral movement to new functions or simply new assignments within a given area.Training (Initial, Induction, Inservice) :- Training will be in three phases Ã¢â¬â i) Initial Ã¢â¬â To provide opportunities to acquire generic/ abstract knowledge in new field of studies ii) Induction Ã¢â¬â To develop microskills. The chaining of which leads to acquisition of macro skills. iii) Inservice Ã¢â¬â Using macro-skills chains in the actual job context. Performance Ev aluation & Judgement of Potential: Ã¢â¬â The process of performance appraisal will be standardized & formalized. Such standardized & formalized performance appraisal will help to justify promotions to give recognition.Organisation Rewards: Ã¢â¬â Line managers must actively work with compensation expert to develop a joint philosophy and set of goals based on an understanding of what the organisation is trying to reward & what employee needs actually are ( people at different career stages many different things. ) Promotion & other job changes: Ã¢â¬â If the promotions opportunities are limited because the pyramid narrows at the top, an effective H. R. P. D. System shall concentrate on developing career paths, system of job rotation, changing assignments, temporary assignments,& lateral job moves that ensure continuing growth of all human resources.One of the key characteristics of an optimally challenging job is that it both draws on the persons abilities & skills. Source Ã¢â ¬â E. H. SCHEIN Ã¢â¬â The Art of Human Resource Management. Training and Development opportunities :- Formal training and other development programmes and education activities are necessary in the total process of human growth and development. These should be carefully linked both to the needs of the individuals and to the needs of organisation. The individual should want to go to the programme because he or she can see how the educational activities fits in to the total career.As much as possible training and educational activities should be tied to job/role planning. Career Counseling : Ã¢â¬â Growth and development only come from within the individual himself or herself, its important that the organisation provide some means for individual employees at all levels to become more pro-active about their careers and some mechanisms for joint dialogue, counseling and career planning. this process should ideally be linked to performance appraisal. Because it is that context tha t the boss can review with the sub-ordinate the future potential development needs, strength weakness, career options etc.Joint Career Planning :- The boss is often not trained in counseling but he possess some of the key information. The employee needs to initiate career planning. Also the sharing of information is properly done is not the same as making commitments or setting up of false expectations. Whatever is decided about training, next steps, special assignment, rotation should be jointly decided by the individual and appropriate organizational resource. Each step must fit in to the employees life plan and must be tied in to organizational needs.Follow Ã¢â¬â up and Evaluation :- Whatever decided should not merely be written down but executed. If there are implementation problems, the development plans should be re-negotiated . Whatever developmental actions were taken it is essential that they be followed up and evaluated both by the persons and by the organisation to det ermine what, if anything, was achieved. The organisation should make plans to talk to the individual before or after the programmes that what will be the appropriate next assignment for him or her following the programme.Planning for and Managing disengagements :- The planning and managing process reviewed below are counter parts of ones that have already discussed but are focused on different problems like late career loss of motivation, obsolescence and ultimately retirement. Organizations must recognize that there are various options available to deal with this range of problems. Beyond the obvious ones of either terminating the employee or engaging in elaborate measures to re-motivate people who may have lost work involvement.Continuing Education & Re-training :- These activities have their greatest potential, if the employee is motivated and if there is some clear connection between what is to be learned and what the employees current or future job assignment required in the wa y of skills. More and more organizations are finding out that it is better to provide challenging work first and only then the training to perform that work ones the employee sees the need for it obviously for this linkage to work well continuous dialogue is needed between employees and their managers.Job Redesign :- Job changes or job re-design is required in general applied to the particular problems of levelled Ã¢â¬â off employees. Job Enrichment :- Job enrichment and other efforts are required to re-design work to increase motivation and performance. Job Rotation :- When the employee becomes unresponsive to the job characteristics themselves and pays more attention to surrounding factors such as the nature of supervision, relationships with co-workers, pay and other extrinsic characteristic in otherwords before organisation attempt to cure levelled of employees by Re-motivating them through job re-design or job relation.They should examine whether those employees are still in responsive mode or not. 2. 0 POST PROJECT STATUS OF H. R. D. SYSTEMS FOR T. E. FOR QUALITY IMPROVEMENT :- The developmental model of Human Resource Planning & Development in Industry is to be adopted for HRPD system of TES for quality improvement. 1. SystemÃ¢â¬â¢s Diagram for post project status of H. R. D. system :- It is depicted in fig. 2. 2. 2 GENERAL :- The old concept of staff development was confirmed to imparting knowledge & skill to teachers that are needed for class room teacher.This consist of developing the requisite subject competence & pedagogical skills. This focuses on improving the teaching & related abilities & is job embedded which means that it undertakes the development of the staff for performing job activities. The new concept of professional development on the other hand focuses also on improvement on job performance & is mostly job related. Fig. 2 and Fig. 4 depicts post project status of HRD for TES. In fig. 2 processes are shown while in fig. 4 developm ental model indicating processes with activities is shown.The process activities in fig. 4 are as follows . 2. 3 Organisational Needs :- Customer and their training needs Ã¢â¬â Needs of TES primarily can be categorized in two ways Ã¢â¬â it needs two types of manpower to manage quality improvement of the T. E. S. 1) Line Functionary Ã¢â¬â Staff at regional and institutional level, Principal, teachers, students. 2) Staff Functionary Ã¢â¬â To manage functions in CDC, instructional design, students learning as well as III, HRD, IS & OD. 2. 4 INDIVIDUAL NEEDS :-Above three activities can be interconnected for identifying the system needs in Human Resource area. Individual staff development is not a one time process & will be distributed throughout working period of on individuals. It consist of three stages Ã¢â¬â 1) Initial training 2) Induction training 3) Inservice training. 2. 5 MATCHING PROCESS :- Job analysis :- It is necessary to specify job needs to be fulfilled & a bout required skills needed to their jobs. It is necessary to do the job analysis for each post involved in the system at state level, Inst. evel, dept. level & individual level. This will helps in understanding to a individual about job profile also to know his function in the system. It helps in deriving the roles & responsibility of posts. HRD will work in this area & will do job analysis & as said above. Recruitment & Selection :- While recruiting a person for the system through MPSC or at Directorate level certain types of norms (e. g. recruitment rules) will be developed by HRD. These norms will be helpful to get the suitable person for the system. Induction & Socialization :-When the employee will be recruited he will learn the ropes, learns how to get along in the organisation, how to work, how to fit in, how to master the particular job, how to see viable future in the career. The goal will be to facilitate the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s becoming productive & useful member of the or ganisation both in short term & long term. Job design / Assignment The job assignment to the new employee will be made to be carefully. The issue is how to provide optimal challenge, a set of activities neither too hard nor too easy & neither too meaningless nor too risky from the point of view of the organisation.Job design & job assignment are the matching processes geared to ensure that the work of organisation will be performed. Line managers will have the basic information about jobs & skills requirement. Training (Initial, Induction, Inservice ):- Initial Training Ã¢â¬â This training will be organized to impart the knowledge & basic operational skills to newly recruited staffs for better T. L. process. It includes modern Tl processes, technologies & hands on practice etc. This also includes awareness about roles & responsibilities of employee & information regarding organisation.Induction Training Ã¢â¬â This training programme will be arrange for locating oneÃ¢â¬â¢s ea rly career issues. He can locate his area of contribution in learning how to fit himself in organisation & becoming productivity seeing a noble future for oneself in the career. This phase insist on development, microskills in his area of interest. There liking areas includes LRDÃ¢â¬â¢s , instructional design, curriculum development, TL processes, instructional processes & institutional process as well as he can develop himself in III, IS, OD, etc. This will help him in vertical & horizontal mobility in the system.HRD system will identify system need in above areas as well as individual need in the same area and will develop & arrange requisite training programme in these areas. Inservice Training Ã¢â¬â These training will facilitate to individual in his career development process. This training must provide some kinds of norms & regulations for employee through some successions of job by promotion or by lateral movement or by giving simply new assignment. this training will fo cus on new emerging technologies in the related area enhancing profession & tech. ompetence among employees. This inservice training programme will provide persons for higher level working like state planning, state management, Instt. Planning, etc. Performance evaluation :- HRD will develop reliable evaluation system to get the necessary feed back to accomplish the goals successfully. Under HRD the process of performance appraisal will be standardized which will help in providing opportunities to individual for vertical & horizontal mobility. Organisational Rewards :- HRD will conceive result oriented reward system.This will motivate employees working in TES & help to achieve the goal of TES effectively & effeciently. Similarly promotion facilities & lateral movements will also be made available. HRD will give guidelines in this matter. Promotion ;- The promotion opportunity are limited because the pyramid narrows at the top. The promotions will be done timely also HRPD system will concentrate on developing career paths, systems of job rotation, changing assignments, temporary assignments to ensure continuous growth of Human resources.Optimally challenging jobs draws persons abilities & skills. Career Counseling :- For growth & development of the individual the organisation will provide some means for individual employees at all levels to become more pro-active about their careers and some mechanisms for joint dialogue counseling and career planning. This process will ideally be linked to performance appraisal. Because the boss can review with the sub-ordinates the future potential development needs, strength weaknesses, career options etc. Planning for levelled Ã¢â¬â off employee :-The planning & managing process are counter parts of individuals that have already discussed but are focussed on different problems like late career, lack of motivation obsolescence and ultimately retirement. Organisation will recognize that there are various options available to deal with this range of problems, beyond obvious ones of either terminating the employee or engaging in elaborate measures to re-motivate people who may have lost work involvement. Job design / Job Rotation :- Job changes or job re-design is suggested which will be applied to the particular problems of levelled Ã¢â¬â off employees.When the employees become un-responsive to the job characteristic themselves and pays more attention to surrounding factors such as the nature of supervision, relationship with co-workers, pay & other extrinsic characteristic, they should examine whether those employees are still in responsive mode or not. 2. 6 Management of the post project status :- All institutions signing the project will be simultaneously engaged in conducting routine activities & at the same time managing project activities. HRD Cells will be installed at D. T. E. , D. I. I. C. , M. S. B. T. E. , R. O. s, R. B. T. E. & polytechnics devoted for managing the project. Their functi ons will be liasion, R & D, design, policy making, development, implementation, evaluation, 2. 7 Resources at the post project status :- The content of this section is based on the systemÃ¢â¬â¢s diagram in fig. 2 in which item No. 5 i. e. resource inputs are shown. They are the resources needed to install management & management processes. Resource planning is intended to ensure that the existing & additional resources are strengthened, developed & kept ready for project implementation. 1) Physical Resources :- Every institute of TES will have adequate physical resources. ) Human Resources :- System will have trained Human resources capable of managing change in educational processes & enabling processes. 3) Information Resources :- HRD components will have a stock of generic information & specific information required & it will flow from one institute to another. 4) Time Resources :- HRD will have long term policy and a time bound action-plan geared to vision, mission , goals, ob jectives & activities. 5) Financial Resources :- HRD component will have financial management to carry out The change process over a long term project period.Provision will be made for internal revenue generation. ******************************************************************************************* 3. 0 PRE-PROJECT STATUS :- 3. 1 Context of W. B. A. P. under which staff development cells were instituted and Role & Function of S. D. C. 3. 1. 1 CONTEXT :- PreWBAP status of HRD Ã¢â¬â In 1965 TTTC was established at Karad. It was shifted to Pune in 1970. TTTC conducted long term programmes of diploma & degree in Technical Teachers Training. In 1980 TTTC was handed over to TTTI Bhopal and extension centre of TTTI was established in Pune in 1980.Prior to WBAP, TTTI & other organisation like CII, IIT & ISTE were announcing the training programmes through their calendar & the state (DTE) deputed the staff for the programmes but it was not in the planned way. WBAP was implemented in the state of Maharashtra for improving quality & efficiency of Technician Education in the state. Developmental activities like Staff development, Curriculum development, Learning resource development, Industry Institute Interaction were started in various polytechnics under various subcomponents of this WBAP.Primarily Government Polytechnics situated at six Regional Headquarters were considered to initiate all these activities. These centres being Autonomous institutes were expected to develop these activities for their own needs & further percolate concepts & benefits related to these activities in the region. In order to implement sustained S. D. activity for faculty & supporting staff Government, Government Aided & Unaided polytechnics of state S. D. cells had been established under WBAP at the six lead centres i. e. Government Polytechnic, Mumbai, Pune, Nashik, Aurangabad, Amaravati & Nagpur. Ref. :- Staff development activity under S. D. Cell at lead centre polytechnics Progr amme calendar Jan. 99 Ã¢â¬â June99 ) By DIIC, Mumbai. 3. 1. 2 ROLE OF S. D. C. :- Training programme calendars were sent to principals of all polytechnics by SPIU/DIIC, Mumbai. They had to prepare staff development plan of their institutes by identifying the teachers / ministerial / supporting staff for the programmes listed in the calender taking into consideration academic planning of their institute. Such staff development plans prepared were submitted to SDCÃ¢â¬â¢s.All SDCÃ¢â¬â¢s were to compile the information received from different polytechnics and pass on the same to DIIC for further execution. This was the practice adopted during WBAP. 3. 2 STATUS OF THE PROGRAMMES :- The programmes planned were categorized as follows :- 1. State level programmes Ã¢â¬â These were the programmes for which staff member from any polytechnic of state was a participant. 2. Regional Programmes Ã¢â¬â Some programmes were planned for the specific region. 3. 3 TYPES OF PROGRAMMES IN THE PREVIOUS CALENDERS. :- 3. 3. 1 Long Term Programmes Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬ ¢ Induction Phase I, Ã¢â¬ ¢ Induction Phase II, Industrial Training of Teachers Ã¢â¬ ¢ Induction programme for office staff (ministerial staff ), Ã¢â¬ ¢ Industrial training of workshop staff. Short Term Programmes Ã¢â¬â 1) Management development programmes for Principals & HODs, Librarians & storekeeper. 2) Content updating programmes for teachers. 3) Skill updating programmes for supporting staff. 3. SystemÃ¢â¬â¢s diagram for Pre-project status :- SystemÃ¢â¬â¢s diagram for Pre-project status is as shown in figure 5. 3. 5 Present status of Clients:- There is no client focussed HRD. 3. 6 Present status of output :- (Trained manpower)Currently the staff development programmes are not designed as per the needs of the organizations. Also the individual training need is not assessed. In short, there exist no systematic & scientific staff development planning. In certain area like Learning Resource Development , Curriculum Development, some manpower is trained but strategy for HRD does not exist as explained in post project status also manpower required for State planning, Institutional planning, LRUC, Instructional design, StudentÃ¢â¬â¢s learning, III, MIS, Organisational development, Staff development, the manpower is not trained to the satisfactory level. . 7Current status of input:- (Current status of knowledge / skills / attitudes of line and staff functionaries) The teachers should have the knowledge & skills of instructional design, LRDC, LRUC . The HODs should have the knowledge & skills of Curriculum design, development, implementation & evaluation. The principals should have the knowledge & skills of institutional planning. State level / regional level officials should have knowledge & skills of planning & management. The line workers required for enabling processes are staff development officers, training & placement officers, project officers.They should have knowledge & skil ls of understanding enabling processes, planning & implementation of these processes. But existing faculty is lacking in professionalism required to undertake / perform such processes. (i. e. knowledge in ID, CD, IP, CDC etc. ) 3. 8 Current status of process of transformation :- (Strategies & activities to convert current level of competence of line and staff functions into those described in post project status) The process of transformation includes a process chain depicted in fig. 5. i) Job analysis for the all the post is not in existence.The roles & responsibilities of SDO, TPO, Project officers, Deputy secretary, Assistant secretary, System Analyst are not clearly mentioned. ii) It is observed that modification in recruitment rules are necessary. Recruitment rules for certain post like Deputy Secretary, Assistant Secretary etc. are not prepared yet. Most important is the gap which still focusses todays job function & not future design of job function. iii) Induction & Socializ ation Ã¢â¬â Presently there is no effort for a newly recruited employee to convert him in productive & useful member of the organization both in short run & long run.Induction phase I & phase II program are currently in operation. iv) Job design & assignment Ã¢â¬â It is observed that currently there is no job description done in professional way also the work allotment in the institution are not as per the ability & skills of the employee. Presently allocation of the work to the subordinates is done by priority of the work. Staff shortage is one of the main reasons for improper allocation of work. v) Training need assessment Ã¢â¬â Assessment of individual training needs, organizational needs & their matching to accomplish a certain goal is not done systematically & scientifically. i) Training Ã¢â¬â Presently training is imparted on the basis of felt needs & not on the basis of needs assessed scientifically & systematically. Also needs of the individuals for his / her ver tical & horizontal mobility have not been considered. Except for few innovative project like LRDC there is no concept of induction & inservice training as such. vii) Performance Evaluation Ã¢â¬â Presently there is no professional way of obtaining feedback mechanism for performance evaluation. It is observed that there is vast gap in performance measurement & reality.Performance appraisal reports are not fact oriented towards the activities of the individual. The current stress is on the confidential reports which makes performance appraisal difficult. viii) Organisational reward Ã¢â¬â There is no reward system to motivate employees at institutional level to engaging attempt to enhance quality of his work. Only state level Best Teacher awards are awarded by the State Government, but these are not in sufficient numbers. ix) Promotion Ã¢â¬â There are no timely promotions. Many of the key posts are vacant. The work of key posts is allotted to another faculty member in the syste m for longer time. ) Career counseling Ã¢â¬â There is no career counseling for employees in TES. xi) Planning for levelled-off employees Ã¢â¬â There is no mechanism for utilizing levelled-off employees which reduces the efficiency of the system. xii) Job Rotation Ã¢â¬â There is no alternative job rotation system by design in existence. 3. 9 Current status of management :- At state level there is no full-fledged management structure for HRD. At institute level there are staff development cell at lead centres only. At department level & class room level, the roles of HOD & roles of Sr. teachers in HRD are not clearly defined. ****************************************************************************************** 4. 0 PROJECT JUSTIFICATION :- Firstly though the design of the world bank assisted project was based on system thinking ( implicitly of course ), the actual implementation was carried out in a fragmented way, treating each sub-component independent of another sub-c omponents without relating their output to the major goals of Ã¢â¬Å" Strengthening Technician Education system Ã¢â¬ There are gaps found by comparing post project status & pre-project status. The gaps are mentioned below Ã¢â¬â . 1 Gaps in customer identification :- Line and Staff functionaries are not identified except for LRDC, specifically for HRD, because there is no such HRD strategy in existence. 4. 2 Gaps in output specification :- The line workers and staff functionaries must have their desirable inventory of knowledge, skills & attitude required to do their functions for quality improvement. 4. 3 Gaps in input :- It is the need of system to have better record of competencies possessed by the functionaries to enable HRD system to design HRD program. 4. 4 Gaps in process :- ) Job Analysis Ã¢â¬â Job analysis is not done for the posts Ã¢â¬â SDO,TPO,PO,Dy. Secretary, Assistant Secretary, System Analyst etc ii) Recruitment Ã¢â¬â Revision / modification of recruitme nt rules is required by focusing on future design of job function. iii) Induction & Socialization Ã¢â¬â Absence of mechanism of induction & socialization for a newly recruited employee. iv) Job design & Assignment Ã¢â¬â There is a staff shortage and hence cannot assign the work as per the ability & skills of the employee. v) Training need assessment Ã¢â¬â No systematic & scientific assessment of training needs. i) Training Ã¢â¬â Training is not divided in three parts Ã¢â¬â1) Initial, 2) Induction & 3)Inservice . There is no need assessment for the individuals for his vertical & horizontal mobility . vii) Performance Evaluation Ã¢â¬â There is no mechanism for feedback from performance evaluation . There are no seprate performance appraisal reports for the different post like Joint Director, Deputy Secretary, Assistant Secretary, SDO, TPO, PO, etc, on the basis of their job functions. viii) Organization reward Ã¢â¬â To motivate employees at different levels there are no financial rewards in sufficient numbers. x) Promotions Ã¢â¬â Many of the key posts are vacant. There are no timely promotions. x) Career counseling Ã¢â¬â There is no career counseling for employees in TES. xi) Planning for levelled-off employees Ã¢â¬â There is no mechanism to utilizing levelled-off employees. xii) Job rotation Ã¢â¬â There is no alternative job rotation system. 4. 5 Gaps in management of HRD :- At state level there is no full-fledged management structure for HRD for qualitative improvement needs to be designed. At institute level there are staff development cell at lead centres only for qualitative improvement needs to be designed.At department level & class room level, the roles of HOD & roles of Sr. teachers in HRD are not clearly defined. 4. 6 Gaps in resources :- i) Human Resources Ã¢â¬â There is no trained Human Resource capable of managing change in educational Processes & Enabling Processes. ii) Information Resources Ã¢â¬â There is no stock of generic information & specific information required for HRD in the form of MIS. iii) Time Resources Ã¢â¬â Presently there is no time bound action plan of HRD geared towards vision of TES. iv) Financial Resources Ã¢â¬â Presently there is no finance available for HRD. 4. Integrated view of Gaps & project justification :- The gaps in post project status and pre-project status are found and these are with respect to customer identification, output, input, process, management, resources. There are gaps in each component of the system and hence mission of TES cannot be accomplished successfully to the full extent. For integration purposes there is a need to consider HRD at systemic level as described in systems diagram in fig. 2. In the last five decades there has been manifold expansion in engineering college and polytechnic education systems.The unprecedented expansion not withstanding , the system design has remained more or less static. Changes in the system if any have been superficial in nature. Meanwhile there have been major changes in the economic and industrial policies of the country where by the protection from international competition here Ã¢â¬âto Ã¢â¬âfor enjoyed by the indigenous industry is no longer available. Indian industry is today facing fierce but healthy competition from multi-national corporations and has to improve significantly the quality of his products and services, if it is to survive in the highly competitive environment.A high level of upgradation in skills is called for if the Indian industry is to be competitive in the world market. The type of technical manpower required by the industry in the present scenario is quite different from the kind of output presently available from the technical institutions. The knowledge competencies & skill profile of future technical manpower will have to be correspondingly enhance by changes in the technical education systems at all levels. The existing technical manpower will also need extensive re-orientation to meet these requirements. (Ref. Draft policy guidelines for training teachers of polytechnics & engineering colleges Ã¢â¬â Ministry of H. R. D. , Department of Secondary & Higher Education, May-2000) Also the massive investment of the World Bank Assisted Project during 1992-99 has given momentum to both the quantitative expansion & qualitative improvement of the technical education system. It also provided basic infra-structural facilities and hence to sustain the gains of WBAP & to accomplish the mission successfully, the gaps in the system must be removed for enhancing the qualitative improvement.Hence , all efforts are to be made to develop systematic and scientific Human Resource Development schemes at various levels. ****************************************************************************************** 5. 0 DEVELOPMENTAL STRATEGY OF HRD :- HRD project will ensure Human Resources required by the TES properly educated & trained to enab le to transform pre-project status of TES to post project status of TES i. e. making available right type of manpower at professional & para professional level. Both educational processes & enabling processes to be upgraded to better level of functioning. ***************************************************************************************** 6. 0 PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY :- 1) HRD Project Strategy :- Ã¢â¬ ¢ Educational processes are Ã¢â¬â a) Students learning, b) Instructional design, c) Learning resource development, d) Learning resource utilization centres, e) Curriculum design & development, f) Institutional Planning, g) State Planning. These processes will be governed by MSBTE. M. S. B. T. E. will be project office. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Enabling processes are Ã¢â¬â a) HRD, b) III, c) O. D. , d) M. I. S, e) Project Management. These processes will be governed by DIIC.DIIC will be the project office. Project structure is indicated in fig. No. 6 Liaison, R/D, design, Policy, dev elopment Implementation evaluation are the activities in the process. 2) Implementation Strategy :- |At State level |State Management Group Ã¢â¬â DTE (M. S. ) Mumbai will be the Chairman of State Management Group. | | | | | |DIIC will be the overall incharge of enabling projects. III, HRD, IS & OD.There will be a project| | |manager (PM) at DIIC project office. HRD Cell will be under the control of PM. | | | | | |MSBTE will be the overall incharge of educational projects. There will be a project manager at | | |MSBTE project office. The Secretary will be the Project Manager. Members from design centers will | | |be assisting the PM for educational projects. | | | | |Identified design centers will assist to develop general models for educational & enabling projects| | |& apply the same for particular discipline through experimentation & then disseminating the tested| | |knowledge to other polytechnics. | |At Regional Level |Regional Management Group will co-ordinate the activiti es at regional polytechnics. | |Six regional polytechnics will responsible for regional co-ordination of implementation, | | |monitoring, evaluation of tested educational and enabling projects. | |At Institution Level |Project Cell at identified polytechnic & other polytechnics will access all developed models from | | |design centers & integrate those into their existing programs. | 6. 1 General system diagram for project implementation :- System diagram for project implementation is as shown fig. 7. 6. 2 Goal structure :- . 2. 1 MISSION OF THE HRD PROJECT IS :- To provide Trained manpower for Line process, Educational processes and Enabling processes. Personnel required for SP, IP, CP, SL also HRD, III, MIS, OD, PM. 6. 2. 2 GOALS OF THE HRD PROJECT ARE :- Mission is broken down into three major goals. 6. 2. 2. 1 To develop right type of Line functionaries from DTE, DIIC, SBTE, ROÃ¢â¬â¢S, RBTEÃ¢â¬â¢s & Polytechnics (Principals, HODÃ¢â¬â¢s & Teachers) 6. 2. 2. 2 To develop rig ht type of staff functionaries required for Educational processes like students learning, Instructional design, LRDC, LRUC, CD, Institutional planning. . 2. 2. 3 To develop right type of staff functionaries required for Enabling processes like MIS, HRD, III, OD & Project management. 6. 2. 3 Objectives of the HRD project :- These are component objectives aimed to achieving each goal mentioned above. Goal No. 1 To develop right type of Line functionaries from DTE, DIIC, SBTE, ROÃ¢â¬â¢S, RBTEÃ¢â¬â¢s & Polytechnics (Principals, HODÃ¢â¬â¢s & Teachers) Objectives for Goal No. 1 01. Job analyzed for line workers, (students, teachers, HOD etc). 02. Recruitment rules/norms revised / modified /prepared. 03. Selection procedures for line workers prescribed. 4. Mechanism developed. for assignment of job based on knowledge & skills possessed by the line workers . 05. The training needs of line workers assessed by considering individual needs & organizational needs. 06. Need based training provided for line workers 07. Reliable & valid evaluation system developed for line workers to get the necessary feedback to accomplish the goal successfully. 08. Standardized the performance appraisal formats for line workers. 09. Devised result oriented reward system for line workers. 0. Provided guide lines for promotion and lateral movements of the line workers. 11. Developed a mechanism linked to performance a appraisal for joint dialogue counseling & career planning of the line worker. Goal No. 2 To develop right type of staff functionaries required for Educational processes like students learning, Instructional design, LRDC, LRUC, CD, Institutional planning. Objectives for Goal No. 2 1. Devised a mechanism for identification of curriculum designers, learning resource developers, instructional designers i. . staff functionaries from TES. 2. Identified the staff functionaries. 3. Assessed the training needs of staff functionaries. 4. Provided initial, induction, inservice train ing by arranging need based training programme for staff functionaries. 5. Developed a valid & reliable evaluation sys5tem to get necessary feedback to accomplish the goal successfully. 6. Devised result oriented reward system for staff functionaries. 7. Developed a mechanism for joint dialogue counseling & career planning of staff functionaries. Goal No. 3To develop right type of staff functionaries required for Enabling processes like MIS, HRD, III, OD & Project management. Objectives for Goal No. 3 1. Identified the staff required for project management in each area MIS,HRD, III, OD, Project planning. 2. Assessed the training needs of staff required for project management. 3. Provided need based training to the staff required for project management. 4. Developed a valid & reliable evaluation system to get the necessary feedback to accomplish the goal successfully. 5. Devised result oriented reward system for executives of the project. 6. Project management structure :- 6. 3. 1 Ro les & functions of each component of management structure (OD,III,MIS,PM,HRD) :- Roles & Functions of Line Functionaries :- 1) Students Learning :- Role is an self directed learner. Functions Ã¢â¬â Management of the self. Management of others Management of information Management of task. 2) Role of Instructional Designers :- Functions Ã¢â¬â To organize T/L experiences so that the students not only gets generic skills but also acquired vocations specific competencies. 3) Role of L. R. D. C. :- Role of L. R. D. C. is learning resource development & utilisation.Functions are to design appropriate message suitable to the student & teachers requirement & make it available both in print & non print media. 4) C. Design & Develop :- The role is curriculum designers & developers. Functions Ã¢â¬â To design curriculum to enable teachers & students to co-ordinate their T/L experiences by co-ordinating the teachers in activities in Basic sciences, Engg. Sciences & Tech. Subjects for eac h branch of Engineering. 5) Institutional planning :- The role is planning. Institutional activities, curriculum development in various branches of engg.As well as short term programmes for continuing. education are carried out with optimum use of physical, information, human & financial resources. 6) State planning :- The role is planning at the state level to facilitate co-ordinated actions of institutional planning both administration units & academic institutions & bring team within the state level policy framework. All these are interconnected so that the framework at the state level provides framework for institutional planning which in turn provides framework for curriculum planning etc. Enabling Processes :- ) The III is to link education system at the state, institution, department, teachers & student level with the industrial systems so that both work together for providing both economic & social development of the country. 2) The O. D. provides supporting conceptual frame work within which the administration & academic institutions can plan & organise systematic transformation of the organisations to be able to adapt themselves to the ever changing environmental conditions. 3) I. S. Ã¢â¬â Provides conceptual framework to (1) generating, acquisition, torage, retrieval & dissemination of information just in time for the front line workers & supporting staff can organise their liasoning work , R & D, design, develop, implementation & evaluation tasks both for plan & non plan activities. 4) PM Ã¢â¬â The role is to provide & conception framework for all those who work to design, develop, implementation & evaluation the projects aimed at innovations in the education system. 6. 3. 2 Roles & functions of project structure of specific HRD project :- Roles & functions expected to be performed by different units shown in the project structure are given below. )SMG (State Management Group) The chairman is DTE (M. S. ) Mumbai. Functions Ã¢â¬â 1) To co-or dinate the work of project cells in DIIC & MSBTE for the purpose of integrating their project management so that the educational projects are properly complemented by enabling projects. 2) Make recommendations for policy making by DIIC & MSBTE to assist their respective project cells to carry out their work. 2) DIIC Role Ã¢â¬â Major roles of DIIC is to frame a policy for implementation of the project & to administer & allocate resources in the recommendation of state management group.. Functions Ã¢â¬â ) To identify policies for project structure required for planning / implementing HRD project. ii) To issue state level policy guidelines for R&D, design, development, implement & evaluation of state level project. iii) To issue policy guidelines to resources allocation iv) To send policy guidelines to concerned officers . v) To appoint officers by name in various cells vi) To obtain the regular feedback from SMG for HRD to review the progress & solve the problems of the project cells. vii) To take administrative & remedial actions on receiving feedback. 3) MSBTEThe major role is to co-ordinate the activities of educational projects, OD & collaborate with PM of MSBTE. Function : I) To communicate the policies regarding educational projects for the institutes. II) To identify the staff functionaries at design centers. III) To assist in developing the general models for HRD for different levels of hierarchy ( staff functionaries) for educational projects. IV) To obtain regular feedback from SMG for HRD project(Educational Projects) to review the progress & solve the problems of the design centers. 4) PM at DIIC Co-ordination cells of HRD project will work under the project manager at DIIC.The Joint Director will be the project manager. PM will be responsible for designing, implementing & evaluating the projects. 5) HRD Co-ordination Cell CHAIRMAN Ã¢â¬â 1) HRD Co-ordinator Ã¢â¬â Deputy Director in DIIC SECRETARY Ã¢â¬â 2) Project Assistant Ã¢â¬â Ass istant Director in DIIC 3) Member Ã¢â¬â Programmer 4) Member Ã¢â¬â Educational Consultant The selected members from design centers will constitute task groups at DIIC. These task group will work with HRD Co-ordination cell to develop general models for all enabling projects for different levels of hierarchy. The supra Ã¢â¬â system will consist of Ã¢â¬â 1) DIIC & MSBTE i. e.Top Management. 2) Project cells of other enabling projects & MSBTE project cells. Major role of HRD co-ordination cell is to co-ordinate the activities of HRD project in reference with enabling & educational projects Liaison, R&D, Design, Policy Development, Implementation & Evaluation of project at state level. Functions Ã¢â¬â 1) To preside meetings of the cell. 2) To manage all the following activities of HRD with the assistance of Task Group Ã¢â¬â a) Designing the general models / mechanisms for HRD for different levels of hierarchy. b) Pilot testing of the instruments developed through Task Groups. c) Validation of the instruments. ) Application of the instruments at Design Centres e) Sending the input formats to the Information service co-ordination cell. f) Sending the output formats to the Information service co-ordination cell. g) Receive the output from Information service cell for different purpose. h) Disseminate the output to the concerned (higher ups, Task Groups, design centres. ) i) To assess the training needs of line-functionaries / staff functionaries. j) To prepare action plans for HRD. k) To prepare staff development plans. l) To implement the plans through Task Groups. m) To ensure the output from training programs. ) To ensure supply of resources. o) To take remedial actions whenever necessary. p) To collect & communicate the feedback to state management group. q) To generate ideas for effective / cost effective HRD r) To keep / maintain the update record of all relevant activities. s) To guide the cells / design centres with the help of educational c onsultants. t) To keep the continuous liaison with educational & other enabling projects co-ordination. u) To identify the training needs of line functionaries / staff functionaries pertaining to the education for implementation / evaluation of the HRD project. ) Design Centres The members selected from design centres to work as task groups in co-ordination with HRD cell at DIIC will also be working directly with PM at MSBTE. The design centres will apply the models developed by PM for particular discipline through experimentation and will then disseminate the tested knowledge to other polytechnics through six regional polytechnics. 7) Regional management Group Joint Director of the region will be the chairman of this group & will the responsible for observing the effective implementation monitoring and evaluation of tested educational and enabling projects. ) Six Regional Polytechnics These will be responsible for regional co-ordination of implementation , monitoring, evaluation of tested educational & enabling projects received from design centres. 9) Project Cell at Institution Level (identified polytechnic/other poly. ) Project cell will access all developed and tested models from designing centres through regional polytechnics and will integrate those into their existing programmes. 7. BUDGET 1. Budget Heads The budget is normally prepared under two heads i. e. non-recurring and recurring expenses for any kind of project. . Non recurring expenses Non recurring expenses are usually considered as one time expenses at the initial stage of the project. These are incurred mostly pertaining to the infrastructural development required for the project including expenses for building, equipment, furniture, vehicle, books, consultancy, fellowship etc. 7. 3 Recurring expenses Recurring expenses are the regular expenses frequently required for the project period. The recurring expenses includes salary of project staff, consumables, O. & M. charges etc. 4.